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封建城市
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  feudal cities
     He then explains the economic and historical reasons for some landlords, bureaucrats, merchants and compradors to be the basic source of modern bourgeois through his comparative studies of the feudal cities, industry and commerce in China and the West.
     他通过对中西封建城市和工商业的比较研究 ,论述了近代资产阶级起源于一部分地主、官僚、商人、买办的经济和历史原因。
短句来源
     The different backgrounds between China's an western feudal cities in their respective politics, economy and culture have exerted tremendous influence upon the growth of the citizen class, social order and social systems, as well as upon the origin and development of legal administration.
     故中西社会封建城市的不同政治、经济、文化背景,不仅对其市民阶级的发展成熟和社会秩序、制度的孕育完善,产生了巨大的社会作用,而且对其法治文明的发轫及走向,有着不可磨灭的历史影响。
短句来源
     In this article I discuss the origin of cities in the Mid- Ages of Western Europe and compare them with the feudal cities in the East, especially in China, thus supply some reference for the stu dy of urban history.
     本文在论述西欧中世纪城市起源的同时,与东方封建城市,尤其中国封建城市的起源进行简单比较,以期对此热门问题做一总结,也为目前方兴未艾的城市史研究提供一些参考。
短句来源
  feudal urban
     An Analysis of the Characteristics of China's Feudal Urban Economy
     浅析中国封建城市的经济特点
短句来源
     A lot of old city, it is over 100 years to be since middle and later periods of 19 periods, under urbanization tide and social environment of making the transition constantly in succession, its feudal urban shape of extending millennium encounters the unprecedented impact.
     许多古老的城市,自十九时期中后期以来的一百多年间,在接连的城市化浪潮与不断转型的社会环境下,其延续了千年的封建城市形态遭遇了前所未有的冲击。
短句来源
     Based on the analysis of the characteristics of China's feudal urban economy, the essay demonstrates its historical position of being dependency of natural economy.
     文章通过对中国封建城市经济发展过程中所表现出的封建性强、消费性突出、工商业发展严重失衡、发展缓慢等特点的分析,表明其始终是自然经济附庸的历史地位。
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  “封建城市”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Before the Opium War, China's cities were of typical feudal style.
     鸦片战争以前,中国的城市是典型的封建城市
短句来源
     Although some handcraft cities and commercial cities emerged as a result of the non-political factors after the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the administrative metropolitan was still the basis of the city system, and the Chinese society were still characterized by a structure of metropolitan politics and rural economy.
     尽管隋唐以后,出现了一些由非政治因素而兴起的手工业城市和商业城市,但是行政中心城市仍然是中国封建城市结构的主体,中国社会仍然呈现出城市政治、农村经济的二元化结构。
短句来源
     The Kaifeng’s history is glorious. It once has been on the crest of feudal city in the natural economic period.
     开封城市历史悠久,农耕经济时代曾发展到封建城市的顶峰。
短句来源
     On the contrary,China's cities and towns were the fortresses for defending feudal system.
     而中国封建城市与统治者有千丝万缕的联系,更多意义上是在封建政治体系中起着堡垒作用。
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Lin zenping expounds in four ways the fundamental features of the primitive accumulation of capital in modern China, that is, “on the one hand, the accumulation of poverty is quite unbearable for the proletariat, and on the other hand, the accumulation of capital is quite insufficient for the bourgeois.”And this is a “point of penetration” in his studies of the bourgeois in modern China. He then explains the economic and historical reasons for some landlords, bureaucrats, merchants and compradors to...

Lin zenping expounds in four ways the fundamental features of the primitive accumulation of capital in modern China, that is, “on the one hand, the accumulation of poverty is quite unbearable for the proletariat, and on the other hand, the accumulation of capital is quite insufficient for the bourgeois.”And this is a “point of penetration” in his studies of the bourgeois in modern China. He then explains the economic and historical reasons for some landlords, bureaucrats, merchants and compradors to be the basic source of modern bourgeois through his comparative studies of the feudal cities, industry and commerce in China and the West. He also demonstrates that the national bourgeois in China began to grow into an independent social class at an early stage of capitalism in China, that is, in the years between 1895 and the first World War. All his arguments are based not only on historical facts but also on theories of historical materialism and his viewpoints have played and will continue to play a leading role in the studies of the modern Chinese history.

林增平从四个方面论证了中国近代资本原始积累的基本特征 ,即“一极积累的贫困绰绰有余 ,一极积累的财富严重不足” ,从而为他研究中国近代资产阶级问题找到了“突破口”。他通过对中西封建城市和工商业的比较研究 ,论述了近代资产阶级起源于一部分地主、官僚、商人、买办的经济和历史原因。他还从三个方面论证了在中国资本主义的初步发展阶段 ,即 1895年至第一次世界大战前 ,中国民族资产阶级开始形成一个独立的社会阶级。他的这些观点不仅有厚实的史实基础 ,同时也有历史唯物主义的理论依据 ,已经并将继续对中国近代史研究起着重要的指导作用

After the Western Roman Empire was destroyed by the Germanic invasions of the fifth century,the Western Europe was in the state of selfsufficient natural economy until the tenth century.From the tenth century onwards,the medieval cities appeared,handicraft and commerce developed,commodity economy gradually replaced natural economy,market economy was more and more dominant.All of these had the western society change gradually.Firstly,the family structure and the family life changed.Then,people's marriage ideas...

After the Western Roman Empire was destroyed by the Germanic invasions of the fifth century,the Western Europe was in the state of selfsufficient natural economy until the tenth century.From the tenth century onwards,the medieval cities appeared,handicraft and commerce developed,commodity economy gradually replaced natural economy,market economy was more and more dominant.All of these had the western society change gradually.Firstly,the family structure and the family life changed.Then,people's marriage ideas and marriage life changed without the exception of church.The power of commodity and market economy was great.

公元 5世纪 ,日耳曼人灭亡了西罗马帝国 ,在西罗马帝国的废墟上建立起了自己的封建王国。西欧又退回到自给自足的自然经济状态 ,这种局面一直持续到 1 0世纪。 1 0世纪以后 ,封建城市兴起 ,手工业和商业发展起来 ,商品经济逐步取代自然经济 ,市场经济越来越占优势 ,由此对当时的社会生活产生了巨大的影响。首先是家庭结构与家庭生活的变化 ,其次是人们的婚姻生活与婚姻观念的变化。它充分说明了商品经济与市场经济的强大力量。

The development of cities is a mirror for history and the cities constitute the hub of a society. The different backgrounds between China's an western feudal cities in their respective politics, economy and culture have exerted tremendous influence upon the growth of the citizen class, social order and social systems, as well as upon the origin and development of legal administration.

城市是历史的钥匙,是社会的枢纽。故中西社会封建城市的不同政治、经济、文化背景,不仅对其市民阶级的发展成熟和社会秩序、制度的孕育完善,产生了巨大的社会作用,而且对其法治文明的发轫及走向,有着不可磨灭的历史影响。

 
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