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贵金属分散
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  noble metal dispersion
In the case of oxygen, the improvement of the noble metal dispersion on the catalysts was dependent on the noble metal loading and the degree of metal sintering.
      
Adding chlorine to the oxygen atmosphere facilitates the restructuring of the metals with an improved increase in the noble metal dispersion.
      


A series of supported palladium catalysts (Pd/Al2O3, Pd/MgO and Pd/TiO2 ) were prepared by impregnation and treated with H2S, H2+O2 or O2, respectively. The S2- species in the supports was introduced by means of mechanically mixing Na2S with the supports or catalysts. XPS and IR spectroscopy were used to investigate the catalysts and supports. The results show that on MgO and TiO2 whose acidities are weak, there exist two kinds of oxygen : the lattice oxygen, and the active oxygen species in the form of adsorbed...

A series of supported palladium catalysts (Pd/Al2O3, Pd/MgO and Pd/TiO2 ) were prepared by impregnation and treated with H2S, H2+O2 or O2, respectively. The S2- species in the supports was introduced by means of mechanically mixing Na2S with the supports or catalysts. XPS and IR spectroscopy were used to investigate the catalysts and supports. The results show that on MgO and TiO2 whose acidities are weak, there exist two kinds of oxygen : the lattice oxygen, and the active oxygen species in the form of adsorbed OH-. The latter can oxidize the S2- into SO42- even at room temperature. Because of the weak acidities and smaller specific surface areas of MgO and TiO2, they show low ability to disperse the supported palladium. The electronic density was thus relatively high, so the metal can donate electron to the adsorbed sulfur easily and S2- was adsorbed. On the other hand the S2- adsorbed is also easy to transform into SO42-. But in the case of A12O3 its acidity is rather strong, and its surface oxygen species is not so active as that in TiO2 or MgO.H2S on A12O3 experiences only physical adsorption-desorption. In Pd/Al2O2, the electronic density of palladium particles was somewhat lower, and the palladium was not so easy to adsorb and transform S2- as that in Pd/TiO2 or Pd/MgO.

以H_2S为毒物,用浸渍法制备了一系列不同载体的钯催化剂(Pd/Al_2O_3、Pd/MgO和Pd/TiO_2)以Na_2S与催化剂机械混合的方式,在载体上引入S~(2-),用H_2—O_2混合气对含硫的催化剂进行处理。藉XPS和IR谱对不同载体的催化剂上硫的吸附及转化进行了研究。结果表明,载体酸碱性对其上担载的贵金属的电子状态有一定的影响。酸性较强的载体对贵金属的分散作用较强,H_2S在这种载体的催化剂上的吸附和转化能力较差。在碱性较强的载体的催化剂上,结果相反。此外,载体上晶格氧的活性不同,对H_2S的转化能力也有差异。在Pd/Al_2O_3催化剂运行过程中,H_2S在A1_2O_3载体上主要发现为一种物理的吸附-脱附过程;而在MgO和TiO_2载体上,不仅存在H_2S的吸附过程,且有H_2S转化为SO_2或SO_4~(2-)的过程。结果还表明,载体性质对催化剂的自身再生能力具有较大影响。

The law of contribution and concentration of precious metals with different grades is investigated in nickel carbonylation processes. Materials consisting of Cu-Ni alloy,high grade precious metals slimes and high nickel matte are handled by carbonylation at 160℃ and 1087 kPa CO pressure for 48h.The result shows that with raw materials containing 0.03%~ 0.3% Au and Pt the nickel carbonylation rate is over 97%, but gold,platinum metals and silver can not be carbonylated.The precious metals are concentrated...

The law of contribution and concentration of precious metals with different grades is investigated in nickel carbonylation processes. Materials consisting of Cu-Ni alloy,high grade precious metals slimes and high nickel matte are handled by carbonylation at 160℃ and 1087 kPa CO pressure for 48h.The result shows that with raw materials containing 0.03%~ 0.3% Au and Pt the nickel carbonylation rate is over 97%, but gold,platinum metals and silver can not be carbonylated.The precious metals are concentrated in carbonylation remaining slags without loss.At the same time Co,Cu,As,Se have different concentration levels.Refining nickel and concentrating precious metals by carbonylation process can decrease the dissipation and loss of precious metals,and improve the total recovery of precious metals and other metals.

研究了含镍物料中不同品位的贵金属在镍羰化过程中的走向和富集规律。试验采用了羰化法对由一次铜镍合金,高品位贵金属阳极泥和高冰镍组成的熔炼物料在如下工艺条件:一氧化碳压力10787kPa、时间48h、温度160℃进行处理。结果表明:金和铂族金属含量在0.03%~0.3%范围内的含镍物料经羰化处理后,镍的羰化合成率>97%。而金和铂族金属没有羰化,银也未羰化,无任何流失,都富集在羰化残渣内。同时,钴、铜、砷、硒也均有不同程度的富集。采用羰化法精炼镍并富集贵金属无疑可以减少贵金属的分散和流失,从而可提高贵金属的总回收率及其它金属的回收。

CeO 2-ZrO 2 solid solutions(Ce/Zr=1)prepared by co-precipitation and templating approach(filter paper is used as templating material),were used as supports for Pd catalysts.Catalyst structures have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction(XRD),CeO 2-ZrO 2 solid solution prepared by two methods are proved to be a cubic fluorite-type phase.Temperature programmed reduction(TPR)experiments have found CeO 2-ZrO 2 solid solution prepared by templating approach much easier to be reduced.Pd dispersion...

CeO 2-ZrO 2 solid solutions(Ce/Zr=1)prepared by co-precipitation and templating approach(filter paper is used as templating material),were used as supports for Pd catalysts.Catalyst structures have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction(XRD),CeO 2-ZrO 2 solid solution prepared by two methods are proved to be a cubic fluorite-type phase.Temperature programmed reduction(TPR)experiments have found CeO 2-ZrO 2 solid solution prepared by templating approach much easier to be reduced.Pd dispersion on the surface of catalysts and activity tests indicated that catalytic performance was determined by Pd dispersion to a certain extent,while Pd dispersion is affected by characterization of the support,Pd catalyst supported on CeO 2-ZrO 2 solid solution prepared by templating approach had larger dispersion of Pd,which represented much better performance than the other one.

以共沉淀法和滤纸作为模板剂的模板法制备铈锆固溶物 (Ce/Zr=1 )负载Pd催化剂 ,用XRD对其进行晶相分析 ,两种方法均形成立方萤石结构 .TPR实验揭示了滤纸模板法制备的铈锆固溶物高温老化催化剂更易被还原 .催化剂表面Pd的分散度和活性评价实验表明 ,催化剂表面贵金属的分散度在一定程度上决定催化剂的活性 ,载体物性影响Pd的分散度 ,滤纸模板法制备的铈锆固溶物负载Pd催化剂有较高的Pd分散度 ,表现出比共沉淀法制备的铈锆固溶物负载Pd催化剂好的三效活性 .

 
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