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  direct reduction
It is assumed that the activation of the tyrosinase in the presence of Fe2+ is due to a direct reduction of the active site copper ions.
      
It is shown that there is an in-principle possibility to perform enanthioselective synthesis in the reaction of direct reduction of aryl bromide with subsequent chemical reaction of electrophilic attachment of carbon dioxide.
      
As opposed to Pd(II) complexes, the reduction of the other complexes involves preceding reversible chemical stages, which yield diammonia complexes undergoing a direct reduction on DME.
      
Compound 3 is produced by the direct reduction of compound 1 on a lead electrode (30% ethanol, 10% HCl).
      
A procedure was proposed for direct reduction of peroxide products resulting from ozonolysis of 1-methylcycloalkenes to the corresponding hydroxyketones by the action of sodium triacetoxohydridoborate.
      
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  directly reduced
The presence of cattle at the breeding sites directly reduced larval survivorship by trampling, and indirectly through sediment deposition at the breeding sites resulting from increased stream bank erosion.
      
Metoclopramide at concentrations above 30 μmol/l directly reduced C spike amplitude; the IC50 for the local anaesthetic action was 158 ± 40 μmol/l (mean ± SEM).
      
Nifedipine directly reduced blood pressure but did not antagonize the effects of cocaine on blood pressure.
      
Inorganic Hg could be directly reduced using KBH4 without preceding elution and determined by CVAAS.
      
The Hg2+ was then directly reduced with tin (II) chloride, and volatilized mercury was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS).
      
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Analysis of causes of thermal hysteresis in injecting fuels through tuyeres given in the literature doesn't consist with the practice. Based on theoretical calculation and analysis, four causes of the thermal hysteresis are recognized: 1, There is a decrease in theoretical heating temperature due to heating, gasification and decomposition of the injected fuel. Owing to the fact that the heat transferred to the hearth is reduced, a "Chilling" effect is observed. Increase in gas and heat content of gas makes the...

Analysis of causes of thermal hysteresis in injecting fuels through tuyeres given in the literature doesn't consist with the practice. Based on theoretical calculation and analysis, four causes of the thermal hysteresis are recognized: 1, There is a decrease in theoretical heating temperature due to heating, gasification and decomposition of the injected fuel. Owing to the fact that the heat transferred to the hearth is reduced, a "Chilling" effect is observed. Increase in gas and heat content of gas makes the burden being heated better, which results in a thermal hysteresis; 2, Rate of burning of the carbon in injected fuel in the hearth is low; 3, Hydrogen in the injected fuel replaces the fixed carbon in the direct reduction zone; 4, Part of the hydrogen in the injected fuel and carbon monoxide formed from injected fuel take parts in the indirect reduction.

对风口喷吹燃料热滞后现象原因分析,现有文献的分折与生产实践是有矛盾的.通过理论计算和分析认为热滞后有以下四个原因:1.喷吹后由于喷吹燃料的加热、汽化、分解,使理论燃烧温度降低,全部煤气留给炉缸热量减少,造成"先凉".由于煤气量及煤气热含量的增加,使炉料加热得更好,形成热滞后.2.喷吹燃料中的碳在炉缸的燃烧率低.3.喷吹燃料中的氢在直接还原中代替固体碳.4.喷吹燃料中的一部分氢和喷吹燃料生成的一氧化碳参加间接还原反应.

Three procedures of cold consolidation of iron-ore and ore-coke pellets using sponge iron powder as a binder (without salt and other additions) have been developed. 1. Cold consolidation of green pellets, 2. consolidation of green pellets after drying. 3. cold consolidation and then drying. The cold consolidated pellets have a compressive strength of 10-20kg/pellet (pellet diameter 8-10mm), suitable for direct charging into rotary kiln and allowing a high temperature (>850℃) at the end of the kiln. Mechanism...

Three procedures of cold consolidation of iron-ore and ore-coke pellets using sponge iron powder as a binder (without salt and other additions) have been developed. 1. Cold consolidation of green pellets, 2. consolidation of green pellets after drying. 3. cold consolidation and then drying. The cold consolidated pellets have a compressive strength of 10-20kg/pellet (pellet diameter 8-10mm), suitable for direct charging into rotary kiln and allowing a high temperature (>850℃) at the end of the kiln. Mechanism of consolidation of these pellets is studied. Their metallurgical properties appear superior to ordinary oxidized pellets. Direct reduction tests of cold consolidated pellets in a semi-industrial rotary kiln (inner diameter 1.1×1.4m) gave a metallization rate of about 95%, with less than 6% powder and at the same time without reoxidization and ring formation. A new scheme of cold consolidation of iron-ore pellets and their direct reduction in the rotary kiln in commercial scale is proposed.

采用海绵铁粉作固结剂,研究出三种直接还原用含铁原料球团的冷固结法.探讨了铁粉冷固结球团的固结机理.冷固结法经过半工业回转炉直接还原的试验,验证了实验室研究成果.提出了铁粉冷固结球团回转炉直接还原的工业化生产新流程方案.

Extensive studies have been made on the so called catastrophic swelling during reduction of pellets made from certain kinds of high-grade iron concentrates. As far as we know, no informations have been published on swelling of pellets made from titanio-magnetite concentrate in literatures.

某些高品位铁精矿球团在用气体(H_2或CO或其混合物)还原时发生所谓的灾难性膨胀的问题,早已多有报道.以钒钛磁铁矿为原料的球团的还原膨胀性质的研究尚未进行过.为解决钒钛磁铁矿球团竖炉直接还原过程中发生的灾难性膨胀问题,在实验室中用光学投影法研究了氧化钠化球团还原时的特性.不附加任何添加剂的氧化球团(TY)升温还原到550~750℃时发生正常膨胀,最大线膨胀率为4~7%.添加5~6%芒硝的氧化球团(6NTY)在同样条件下发生灾难性膨胀,最大线膨胀率15~30%,膨胀后的球团严重粉化,一触即溃.但6NTY球团在高于~1100℃恒温还原时,仅作正常膨胀.用控制气体还原位的方法分步还原实验结果表明,6NTY球团的灾难性膨胀及TY球团的正常膨胀都是发生在赤铁矿-磁铁矿转变阶段,这与国外研究者提出的在浮土体-金属铁阶段生成的铁须导致球叫灾难灶膨胀的观点不同.用弱还原性气氛(例如CO/CO_2=1/99的还原气体)对球团作磁铁矿化处理,消除了赤铁矿,从而完全消除了灾难性膨胀.磁铁矿化球团(6NTM, 6NTYM, 6NTYVM)的还原膨胀值仅~1.5%,相当于球团的热膨胀值.提出了磁铁矿化指标α=Fe~(3+)...

某些高品位铁精矿球团在用气体(H_2或CO或其混合物)还原时发生所谓的灾难性膨胀的问题,早已多有报道.以钒钛磁铁矿为原料的球团的还原膨胀性质的研究尚未进行过.为解决钒钛磁铁矿球团竖炉直接还原过程中发生的灾难性膨胀问题,在实验室中用光学投影法研究了氧化钠化球团还原时的特性.不附加任何添加剂的氧化球团(TY)升温还原到550~750℃时发生正常膨胀,最大线膨胀率为4~7%.添加5~6%芒硝的氧化球团(6NTY)在同样条件下发生灾难性膨胀,最大线膨胀率15~30%,膨胀后的球团严重粉化,一触即溃.但6NTY球团在高于~1100℃恒温还原时,仅作正常膨胀.用控制气体还原位的方法分步还原实验结果表明,6NTY球团的灾难性膨胀及TY球团的正常膨胀都是发生在赤铁矿-磁铁矿转变阶段,这与国外研究者提出的在浮土体-金属铁阶段生成的铁须导致球叫灾难灶膨胀的观点不同.用弱还原性气氛(例如CO/CO_2=1/99的还原气体)对球团作磁铁矿化处理,消除了赤铁矿,从而完全消除了灾难性膨胀.磁铁矿化球团(6NTM, 6NTYM, 6NTYVM)的还原膨胀值仅~1.5%,相当于球团的热膨胀值.提出了磁铁矿化指标α=Fe~(3+)/TFe-0.70TiO_2作为事先检验球团还原膨胀性质的判据.研究结论已为四川省冶金研究所进行的扩大试验结果所证实.

 
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