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激活
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     The Activation of Oocyte
     卵母细胞的激活
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     activation epoxidating enzymes;
     激活环氧化酶;
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Creep under very small torsional stress has been investigated for 99.95% polycrystalline iron in the temperature range of 350°-525℃. The general features of the creep curves obtained are essentially the same as those previously reported for 99.991% aluminum. The creep is shown to be consisted of two parts, one occurring at lower temperatures or shorter times and the other at higher temperatures or longer times. The first part of the creep is limited in extent and is associated with the viscous behavior of grain...

Creep under very small torsional stress has been investigated for 99.95% polycrystalline iron in the temperature range of 350°-525℃. The general features of the creep curves obtained are essentially the same as those previously reported for 99.991% aluminum. The creep is shown to be consisted of two parts, one occurring at lower temperatures or shorter times and the other at higher temperatures or longer times. The first part of the creep is limited in extent and is associated with the viscous behavior of grain boundaries. The activation energy for this grain-boundary creep is 78,000 ± 4,000 calories per mole according to the present creep and stress relaxation measurements. This value is close to the activation energy for self-diffusion of iron, a correlation which indicates that, in so far as to the mechanism of atomic migration is concerned, grain boundaries may not be very different from the interior of the grains.

用99.95%的多晶纯铁作了从350°-525℃的扭转微蠕变及应力弛豫试验,所得结果的概貌与以前用多晶纯铝所得的基本上相同。从蠕变曲线上可以看出这蠕变是由两部分组成的:第一部分是在较低温度或较短时间内发生的,第二部分是在较高温度或较长时间内发生的。第一部分的蠕变是有限的,是由于晶粒间界的粘滞性滑移所引起。根据微蠕变及应力弛豫测量的结果,这一部分蠕变所包含的激活能是78,000±4,000卡/克分子。这个激活能(晶粒间界滑移激活能)的数值与纯铁自扩散的激活能很相近,表示晶粒间界与晶粒内部对于原子迁移的基本过程而言并没有显著的差异。 加碳于纯铁中对于这两部分的蠕变都有显著的影响。最值得注意的结果是含碳量少到0.0004%时已经使晶粒间界的粘滞性滑移受到显著的阻碍。这些发现在控制金属高温蠕变的问题上指出一个一般性的原则,对于以前所提出来的晶粒间界空穴模型也提供了一些新的实验证据。 根据加碳的实验结果,对于第二部分高温蠕变的机构也提出了一个初步的看法,这蠕变所包括的基本过程可能是晶粒内部的空穴中的原子重新排列。

Internal friction peaks asscciated with the presence of carbon in several types of f.c.c. alloy-steel (18/8 type stainless steel and high manganese steel) have been observed from measurements with a torsion pendulum. The temperature for maximum internal friction lies between 200-300℃with a frequency of vibration of about I cycle per second. The height uf the peak rises and the position of the peak shifts to a lower temperature with an increase of the carbon content. When the amount of carbon in solid solution...

Internal friction peaks asscciated with the presence of carbon in several types of f.c.c. alloy-steel (18/8 type stainless steel and high manganese steel) have been observed from measurements with a torsion pendulum. The temperature for maximum internal friction lies between 200-300℃with a frequency of vibration of about I cycle per second. The height uf the peak rises and the position of the peak shifts to a lower temperature with an increase of the carbon content. When the amount of carbon in solid solution is reduced by tempering the specimen at an elevated temperature, the height of the peak lowers and the peak shifts to a higher temperature. A comparison of the activation energy and the diffusion ccefficients determined by internal friction methods with those measured in conventional macro-diffusion experiments reveals that the observed internal friction peak is associated with the stress-indused diffusion of carbon in these face-centered cubic steels.

用扭摆作内耗测量,发现了几种面心立方系合金钢(18/8型不锈钢及高锰钢)中含碳可以引起内耗峰。当振动频率约为每秒1周时,峰的巅值温度在200-300℃之间。当钢中固溶体的碳量增多时,内耗峰升高而峰的位置移向低温,当钢中所含的碳因回火而发生沉淀时,内耗峰降低而峰的位置移向高温。把内耗方法所测得的激活能、弛豫时间和由此计算所得的扩散系数与资料上所载的碳在面心立方系的钢中宏观扩散的数据相比较,指出所观测的内耗峰确是由于碳在钢中的微扩散所引起来的。 用同样的实验方法也发现了碳在镍铝合金及在纯镍中由于微扩散而引起的内耗峰。这些实验指出,碳在面心立方系晶体中微扩散而引起内耗峰这件事实,可能是一种普遍的现象。

It is well-known that the stress-induced rotation of the magnetic domains in nickel gives rise to an internal friction peak (when internal friction is plotted as a function of temperature of measurement). An internal friction peak associated with the presence of carbon in nickel was recently observed in our laboratory. In this paper are described further experiments which demonstrate conclusively that this new internal friction peak is not connected with ferromagnetism of nickel but depends upon the amount of...

It is well-known that the stress-induced rotation of the magnetic domains in nickel gives rise to an internal friction peak (when internal friction is plotted as a function of temperature of measurement). An internal friction peak associated with the presence of carbon in nickel was recently observed in our laboratory. In this paper are described further experiments which demonstrate conclusively that this new internal friction peak is not connected with ferromagnetism of nickel but depends upon the amount of carbon in solid solution in nickel. More accurate determinations of the activation energy associated with this internal friction peak show that this activation energy is indeed very close to the activation energy for the diffusion of carbon in nickel. These experiments thus show that the new internal friction peak is associated with the stress-induced micro-diffusion of carbon in nickel.

镍中磁畴在应力作用下的转动可以引起一个内耗峰(当内耗表示为温度的函数时),是众所周知的现象。最近在我们的实验室中发现镍中含碳可以引起内耗峰。本文叙述进一步的实验,确切证明这个新内耗峰与镍的磁性无关,而与镍中固溶体所含的溶解碳量有关。关于激活能的较精确测量指出:与这个内耗峰相联系的激活能确与碳在镍中扩散的激活能很相近。这些实验说明这个新内耗峰是由于碳在镍中的应力感生微扩散而起的。 简单地讨论了这个内耗峰的机构,认为可能与镍的晶体点阵中的空穴有关。

 
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