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环境辐射
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     )P+F which takes the tree's fundamental value as the basis, coupled with its value of environmental protection as well as its value of ornamentation.
     )P+F。
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     +f((?)
     +f((?)
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     The Environment
     环境
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     A New Data Logger for Environmant Radiation Measurement
     环境辐射数据记录仪
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     environment;
     环境;
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When the target is a grey body, especially when its temperature is nearly equal to that of circumferential bodies, the target's self-radiation and the circumferential radiation reflected by the target must be considered. Thus, the sensibility equations of various infrared systems have to be modified. According to these modified equations, we can explain some experimental phenomena that-can not be interpreted by the unmodified equations in which only self-radiation is taken into account.

当目标为灰体时,尤其是目标温度与环境物体的温度相近时,必须同时考虑目标的自身辐射和它对环境辐射的反射。这样,各种红外系统的灵敏度方程就需要修正。根据这些修正后的方程,就可以解释原来只考虑自身辐射的方程所无法解释的实验现象。其中,对于热成象系统,我们作了重点讨论,不但考虑了场景中相邻单元的温差、比辐射率差和反射率差的影响,而且考虑了扫描效率、扫描重迭率、串联或并联列阵元件、加场镜或浸没透镜等的影响,得到比较完整的灵敏度方程和噪声等效温差NETD的表达式。对于NETD中的积分X_T的计算方法,我们也作了介绍并给出数值表。

The emissivity of various room temperature materials may be measured simply by the HD Infrared Low Temperature Radiometer, the results of the measurement are in agreement with those of other articles.

用HD红外低温测温仪很简单地就可测定各种常温物体的比辐射率,其结果与文献上发表的相一致。在用测温仪测定室内各种常温物体的辐射温度时发现,它们的辐射温度几乎是相等的。为了解释这些实验现象,我们推导了相应的公式,认为在这种情况下必须考虑目标对环境辐射的反射。

The site proposed for the construction of the 50 GeV Proton Synchrotron of theAcademia Sinica near Beijing is close to residential areas and places with a high cul-tural and touristic value. The impact of the construction and operation of the accele-rator on the environment and in particular the radiological impact is of Prime concernto the authorities who licence and support the project. It is shown in the present re-port that the influence on the area outside the fence of the proposed site is indeedvery small:...

The site proposed for the construction of the 50 GeV Proton Synchrotron of theAcademia Sinica near Beijing is close to residential areas and places with a high cul-tural and touristic value. The impact of the construction and operation of the accele-rator on the environment and in particular the radiological impact is of Prime concernto the authorities who licence and support the project. It is shown in the present re-port that the influence on the area outside the fence of the proposed site is indeedvery small: the stray radiation level can be kept below 20 mrem/y outside the fence,and the radioactivity released in air will not, in the most exposed location outsidethe accelerator area, give rise to a submersion does of more than 10mrem/y. Provid-ed some precautions are taken. The release of activity by water will not result inactivity concentrations of more than one tenth of the maximum permissible concentra-tions according to the legislation of the People' s Republic of China. The estimationsin this report have been based both on calculations and on experience with the CERNand other accelerators. The conclusions arrived at confirm that the radiological im-pact on the environment of high-energy accelerators of such beam powers(~20 kW)are insignificant.

中国科学院准备建造的50 GeV质子同步加速器 (简称BPS) 的地点拟选在北京十三陵附近。这里是中国著名的文化古迹和游览区,周围有一些居民点,又处在首都的上风、上水方向。因而,加速器在这里建成运行后对环境的影响,尤其是在辐射方面的影响,是人们非常关心的。本文表明,BPS对其环境的辐射影响是非常小的,围墙外杂散辐射水平可保持低于20毫雷姆/年;采取某些防护措施后,其排放到大气中的短寿命放射性气体所造成的“浸没”剂量不超过10毫雷姆/年;进入水中的放射性物质,按很保守的估计,也不会使排出水的放射性浓度高于中国“放射防护规定”中所列适用于居民饮水的露天水源限制浓度的1/10。采取本文中建议的防护措施后,BPS不构成对环境的污染。本文是在参考欧洲核子研究中心(CERN)及其它高能加速器的经验的基础上,根据中国的有关标准或规定,以及加速器的设计参数,由高能所和CERN合作完成的。

 
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