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oecd国家
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  oecd countries
    Half-yearly Review of the Oil MarkeL in OECD Countries in 2002
    2002年OECD国家石油市场半年回顾
短句来源
    Renewable energy development in OECD countries
    OECD国家可再生能源的发展
短句来源
    Practices of OECD Countries in Promoting Competition in the Gas Industry and Supervision Reform
    OECD国家促进天然气行业竞争及监管改革的经验
短句来源
    This article gives a brief summary of the OECD countries oil resources, production and consumption, trade and stocks.
    本文介绍了OECD国家石油的资源、生产与消费、贸易和储备现状。
短句来源
    OECD countries adopted 4 major policy pillars, i.e., supply reform, demand reform, market structure adjustment and application of competition codes.
    OECD国家采取了供应改革、需求改革、市场结构调整和竞争法规应用四大政策支柱来构 建天然气市场,促进天然气行业的竞争。
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    The cointegration analysis shows that the OPEC output and the OECD consumption demands are the long-term factors influencing the international oil price with the elasticity of about-8.845% and 7.19%,respectively. But they have almost no influence in the short run according to the results of the error correction model.
    对油价和主要影响因素的长短期关系的检验表明,OPEC产量、OECD国家消费需求等是影响石油价格的长期因素,弹性系数分别是-8.845%、7.19%,短期影响很小;
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  oecd countries
We ask whether Germany really is such an unusual case compared to other OECD countries.
      
Jan-Egbert Sturm: Public capital expenditure in OECD countries.
      
Socio-economic indicators are used to show that the existing global knowledge gap is widening between Southeast Asia and the OECD countries and within ASEAN.
      
In the last 15 years, the governments of many OECD countries have transferred a wide range of functions to new, agency-type organizations.
      
OECD countries may need to rely more on domestic policies to reduce their emissions than what has so far been projected by global models.
      
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The countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) are major oil consumption in the world. Their oil consumption account for nearly 62% of the world total oil consumption. This article gives a brief summary of the OECD countries oil resources, production and consumption, trade and stocks.

经济合作与发展组织国家(OECD)为世界主要的石油消费地区,其石油消费量约占世界总量的62%。本文介绍了OECD国家石油的资源、生产与消费、贸易和储备现状。

Promoting competition has become a clear policy favorite for many governments, including OECD countries, in their reform of the gas industry. OECD countries adopted 4 major policy pillars, i.e., supply reform, demand reform, market structure adjustment and application of competition codes. In the past 20 years, OECD countries explored how to shift from government interference to modem supervision. Most OECD countries have selected independent supervision from among three supervision modes: self supervision by...

Promoting competition has become a clear policy favorite for many governments, including OECD countries, in their reform of the gas industry. OECD countries adopted 4 major policy pillars, i.e., supply reform, demand reform, market structure adjustment and application of competition codes. In the past 20 years, OECD countries explored how to shift from government interference to modem supervision. Most OECD countries have selected independent supervision from among three supervision modes: self supervision by enterprises, direct supervision by government and independent supervision by supervisors. To build independent supervisors, it is necessary to clearly define organization design, staffing, source of funds, internal and external working programs. Practices of OECD countries in promoting competition in the gas industry and supervision reform reveal that: a shift to a market-based gas industry is inevitable; independent supervision is a successful supervision mode, and there is no universal optimal mode. The foundation of building and implementing independent supervisors is to construct a legal system for that supervision. Adherence to the law will help guarantee a smooth transition to this independence.

促进竞争已成为包括OECD(经济合作与发展组织)国家在内的世界各国政府对天然气行业改革的 一个明确的政策取向。OECD国家采取了供应改革、需求改革、市场结构调整和竞争法规应用四大政策支柱来构 建天然气市场,促进天然气行业的竞争。近20年来,OECD国家开始了从政府干预主义向现代监管转变的探索, 大部分OECD国家已在企业自我监管、政府部门直接监管和监管机构独立监管这三种不同类型的监管制度中不约 而同地选择了独立监管的模式。建立独立监管机构,必须在职能界定和划分、组织结构设计、人员配备、经费 获取以及内外工作程序制定等方面精心安排。OECD国家在促进天然气行业竞争及监管改革方面的经验说明:天 然气行业的市场化是大势所趋;独立监管是较为成功的监管模式,不存在普遍适用的最佳模式;独立监管机构 的建立和独立监管的实施必须以监管的法律体系建设为前提,依法建立监管机构,依法行使监管权力是监管得 以顺利实施的重要保证。

Precise insight into the real reasons that account for the changes of international oil price can bring proper actions in this changeful era.AR(1) model is suitable in depicting the characteristic of international oil price moving.The cointegration analysis shows that the OPEC output and the OECD consumption demands are the long-term factors influencing the international oil price with the elasticity of about-8.845% and 7.19%,respectively.But they have almost no influence in the short run according to the results...

Precise insight into the real reasons that account for the changes of international oil price can bring proper actions in this changeful era.AR(1) model is suitable in depicting the characteristic of international oil price moving.The cointegration analysis shows that the OPEC output and the OECD consumption demands are the long-term factors influencing the international oil price with the elasticity of about-8.845% and 7.19%,respectively.But they have almost no influence in the short run according to the results of the error correction model.This research also shows that China's consumption demand influences the international oil price in the short-term with an elasticity of about 3.99%;and the international oil price needs about 1.63~1.88 quarters to revise the deviation from the long-term balance.The results of these empirical tests present that long-term fluctuations of international oil price are generally determined by economic factors such as the output of OPEC,the demands and stocks of OECD nations.Short-term oil price fluctuations mainly derive from non-economic factors such as political affairs,speculations in the international oil futures markets and other emergent affairs.Compared with AR(1) model,causality model which contains the variables of the output of OPEC,the demands and stocks of OECD nations and so on gives more precise forecast of the future oil price.China's domestic crude oil price and petroleum prices are all about one month lag compared with that of the international markets because of Chinese present pricing mechanism.While Granger causality test shows that China's export oil price moves simultaneously with the international oil price.So China's basic oil strategies such as oil stock strategy,petroleum finance strategy should be based on the analysis and the forecast of the international long-term economic factors which influence the oil price essentially.Chinese domestic pricing mechanism should also be reformed and a modern petroleum market system should be established.

实证研究表明,国际油价变动特点可以用AR(1)模型描述。对油价和主要影响因素的长短期关系的检验表明,OPEC产量、OECD国家消费需求等是影响石油价格的长期因素,弹性系数分别是-8.845%、7.19%,短期影响很小;中国石油消费需求短期对油价产生了正向影响,弹性为3.99%。国际油价对长期均衡的偏离大约需要1.63~1.88个季度得到修正。实证结果说明,国际油价的长期走势仍然是由最根本的供求关系等经济因素决定的,短期油价变动主要源于突发性非经济因素。AR(1)模型和由OPEC产量、OECD国家消费需求、OECD库存等构成的因果关系模型相比,后者对于预测国际油价有更好的效果。中国国内油价对国际油价存在滞后效应,但出口价格已与国际油价同步。中国基本石油战略的构建应该建立在对长期经济因素的分析和预测之上,并建立现代石油市场体系,改革石油定价机制。

 
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