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oecd国家
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  oecd member countries
    Extended Producer Responsibility Policy in OECD Member Countries and its Effect on Market Structure and Firm Conduct
    OECD国家扩大生产者责任政策对市场结构与企业行为的影响
短句来源
    Extended producer responsibility (EPR) as a regulatory policy instrument, in which a producer's responsibility for a produce is extended to the post-consumer stage of a produce's life cycle, is first implemented in OECD member countries.
    扩大生产者责任 (EPR)政策是一项在OECD国家率先实施的环境规制政策 ,该政策使生产者对于其产品所负的责任扩大到产品生命周期的消费后的废弃物处置阶段。
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  oecd member countries
No significant effects were found to be present in the subsample of OECD member countries.
      
It alsodiscusses how statistics interacted withpolitics by way of studies that documentedgaps between OECD Member countries and betweenthe OECD and the USSR.
      
Recently compiled statistics in OECD Member Countries are used to support the argument that we know very little about the socio-economic effects of providing kindergarten and nursery facilities.
      
The paper contains a survey of the legal approach taken to protect consumers from unsafe products in OECD member countries during the last decade.
      
To meet their existing and foreseen regulatory needs in this area, OECD member countries have encouraged the development of test methods and their emergence at the OECD level.
      
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The average size of firms of OECD countries, Asian newly industrialized economies and China shows an inverted U shape. There is no if and only if relationship between the growth of per capita income, urbanization and industrialization. How to explain the phenomenon inconsistent with the conventional wisdom? According to theory of the irrelevance of the size of the firm, if division of labor develops within the firm, productivity and the size of the firm increase side by side. If division of labor occurs between...

The average size of firms of OECD countries, Asian newly industrialized economies and China shows an inverted U shape. There is no if and only if relationship between the growth of per capita income, urbanization and industrialization. How to explain the phenomenon inconsistent with the conventional wisdom? According to theory of the irrelevance of the size of the firm, if division of labor develops within the firm, productivity and the size of the firm increase side by side. If division of labor occurs between firms, productivity and division of labor increase, while average size of the firm decreases. What decides the size of the firm is the change of transaction efficiency of intermediate goods relative to final goods. What decides the economic growth is the general transaction efficiency. Hence, the change of the size of the firm and economic growth are two parallel phenomena. Economy can grow either as the size of the firm increases or decreases. The level of division of labor and productivity cannot be explained by the average size of the firm, or the size of the firm is irrelevant to productivity and level of division of labor. According to this theory, many existing policies regarding the SMEs in China are inefficient and need to be adjusted.

OECD国家、亚洲新兴工业化国家 (地区 )和中国的平均企业规模都呈明显的倒U型变化趋势。企业规模同经济增长、城市化及工业化之间并不存在“当且仅当”的正相关关系。因为 :分工与专业化是经济增长和递增报酬的源泉 ,厂商规模同经济增长并没有内在的因果关系。如果分工在企业内部发生 ,厂商平均规模就扩大 ;如果分工在企业之间发生 ,则厂商平均规模就缩小。决定厂商规模的 ,乃是中间产品和劳动力相对交易效率的变化 ;决定经济增长的 ,乃是一般交易效率的高低。因此 ,厂商规模的变化和经济增长是两个相互独立的现象 ,经济增长可以在厂商平均规模扩大时发生 ,也可以在厂商平均规模缩小时发生。本文并对中国目前中小企业政策可能会产生的经济后果进行了分析。

Extended producer responsibility (EPR) as a regulatory policy instrument, in which a producer's responsibility for a produce is extended to the post-consumer stage of a produce's life cycle, is first implemented in OECD member countries. This paper illustrates how enterprises cope with EPR policy through typical cases. On the basis of that, EPR policy's effect under public and private products taking-back system on market structure and firm conduct is analyzed respectively according to the theory of industrial...

Extended producer responsibility (EPR) as a regulatory policy instrument, in which a producer's responsibility for a produce is extended to the post-consumer stage of a produce's life cycle, is first implemented in OECD member countries. This paper illustrates how enterprises cope with EPR policy through typical cases. On the basis of that, EPR policy's effect under public and private products taking-back system on market structure and firm conduct is analyzed respectively according to the theory of industrial organization. The main conclusions are: (1) the public products taking-back system unravels a problem that small and medium sized enterprises exit from market for being hard to bear the product taking-back responsibility independently, thus keeping market contestable, but the taking-back link of this system is hard to meet the requirements of both environmental regulation and economic efficiency simultaneously; and (2) the prerequisite for private products taking-back system is a vertical integration enterprise, whose scope of business includes manufacture, sale and taking-back, as increases the barriers to entry and monopolistic degree of the market.

扩大生产者责任 (EPR)政策是一项在OECD国家率先实施的环境规制政策 ,该政策使生产者对于其产品所负的责任扩大到产品生命周期的消费后的废弃物处置阶段。本文通过典型案例说明企业如何应对EPR政策 ,在此基础上 ,运用产业组织学理论分别分析共用与专用产品回收体系下EPR政策对市场结构与企业行为产生的影响。得出的主要结论是 :共用的产品回收体系 ,避免了中小产品制造企业因难以独立完成产品回收而退出市场 ,从而保持了产品市场的竞争性 ,但在回收环节上环境规制目标与经济效率目标顾此失彼 ;专用的产品回收是以企业实施集产品生产销售回收于一体的纵向一体化为前提 ,增大了市场的进入障碍和垄断性。

This paper first analyzes the necessity that the government brings the small and medium private enterprises clusters community policy into effect.Then it benefits from the OECD countries'experiences which is derived from clusters'development.According to the rule of clusters development,principles and the goals of the community policy was proposed,which can facilitate the small and medium private enterprises clusters.Finally,it expatiate the content of the policy which mainly include the external environment,the...

This paper first analyzes the necessity that the government brings the small and medium private enterprises clusters community policy into effect.Then it benefits from the OECD countries'experiences which is derived from clusters'development.According to the rule of clusters development,principles and the goals of the community policy was proposed,which can facilitate the small and medium private enterprises clusters.Finally,it expatiate the content of the policy which mainly include the external environment,the industrial structure,and the support systems ect,which facilitate the small and medium private enterprises clusters.

首先分析政府实施民营企业集群公共政策的必要性,然后借鉴OECD国家发展集群的经验,按照集群发展的规律,提出了促进民营企业集群发展的公共政策的原则和目标,最后对促进民营企业集群发展的政策的内容进行了阐述,主要包括有利于民营企业集群发展的外部环境,产业结构,支持系统等。

 
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