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热平流    
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  heat advection
    According to the characteristics of vertical thermal structure of intermediate cold water, and considering the sea surface thermal and dynamical forcing factors, the shear stress and entrainment heat exchange in the interfaces of water layers, heat advection, mixing and topographic effect, firstly the closed ly relevant equations are derived by vertical integrating whole ocean and each layer, respectively based on primitive momentum, continuity and heat conduction equations. The equations can describe wind driven interface fluctuation, the mean velocity and temperature fields in each layer.
    根据含中层冷水海洋垂直热结构的特征 ,将其分为 4层 ,并考虑来自海面的热力和动力强迫因子、水层界面剪切应力和卷挟热交换、热平流、混合及地形影响等条件下 ,从原始动量、连续方程组及热传导方程出发 ,对整个海洋和各水层分别进行垂向积分 ,导出相应的描述风生界面起伏、各水层平均流场和温度场的闭合方程组 .
短句来源
  heat advection
    According to the characteristics of vertical thermal structure of intermediate cold water, and considering the sea surface thermal and dynamical forcing factors, the shear stress and entrainment heat exchange in the interfaces of water layers, heat advection, mixing and topographic effect, firstly the closed ly relevant equations are derived by vertical integrating whole ocean and each layer, respectively based on primitive momentum, continuity and heat conduction equations. The equations can describe wind driven interface fluctuation, the mean velocity and temperature fields in each layer.
    根据含中层冷水海洋垂直热结构的特征 ,将其分为 4层 ,并考虑来自海面的热力和动力强迫因子、水层界面剪切应力和卷挟热交换、热平流、混合及地形影响等条件下 ,从原始动量、连续方程组及热传导方程出发 ,对整个海洋和各水层分别进行垂向积分 ,导出相应的描述风生界面起伏、各水层平均流场和温度场的闭合方程组 .
短句来源
  thermal advection
    It is shown from the study results that (1) in spring, the formation of NWW is mainly due to the sea surface net heat flux, and the contribution of the thermal advection and the entered warm water from Sulu Sea or the area south of the Sunda Shelf are small;
    结果表明:(1)在春季,南沙暖水的形成主要来自海面净热通量的贡献,而通过热平流、苏禄海或巽它陆架以南的暖水进入的贡献甚小;
短句来源
    (2) in winter, the strength of the current field in the Nansha Islands sea areas increases, and the contribution of the thermal advection is greater than or equal to that of the sea surface net heat flux, so the drop in sea temperature is greater than that in other deep sea areas, but the sea temperature in the sea area still keeps high because the initial sea temperature field in the preceding season is higher;
    (2)在冬季,南沙群岛海区流场强度增大,热平流项的贡献大于或等于海面净热通量的贡献,海温的降低幅度也较其他深海区的要大。 但由于该海区在此前的季节中初始温度场较高,因而使得该海区的海温仍保持较高的水平;
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  heat advection
As a result, the change in surface heat content is roughly half due to ocean-atmosphere heat exchange and half due to heat advection by remotely forced vertical motion.
      
Vein and metasomatic assemblages formed during a single fluid-rock interaction process, implying high heating rates (≥100?°C/Ma), which could result from heat advection by large-scale fluid circulation.
      
A phase of mantle upwelling and heat advection into the crust is proposed to be the reason for this short-episodic magmatic pulse.
      
The heat advection in the lower crust by injected mantle melts was sufficient to produce crustal partial melts in lower crustal levels.
      
The influence of anomalous drift heat advection is about 30-50% of the SSTA, and the influence of salinity anomalies is about 10-25% and less.
      
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  heat advection
As a result, the change in surface heat content is roughly half due to ocean-atmosphere heat exchange and half due to heat advection by remotely forced vertical motion.
      
Vein and metasomatic assemblages formed during a single fluid-rock interaction process, implying high heating rates (≥100?°C/Ma), which could result from heat advection by large-scale fluid circulation.
      
A phase of mantle upwelling and heat advection into the crust is proposed to be the reason for this short-episodic magmatic pulse.
      
The heat advection in the lower crust by injected mantle melts was sufficient to produce crustal partial melts in lower crustal levels.
      
The influence of anomalous drift heat advection is about 30-50% of the SSTA, and the influence of salinity anomalies is about 10-25% and less.
      
更多          
  thermal advection
Oceanic thermocline anomalies propagate northward in the western Pacific, and lag the atmosphere indicating a disequilibrium with the atmosphere; sub-surface thermal advection appears to play an important role.
      
The thermal advection of the atmosphere disturbance weakens the SSTA pattern in the following autumn and winter.
      
Ocean mixed-layer thermal budget shows that the atmospheric surface flux is a major process responsible for SST variation while thermal advection and thermal entrainment play a secondary role.
      
Furthermore, thermodynamic equation analyses revealed that the leading edge of the cold surge was maintained primarily by meridian thermal advection, while diabatic heating, vertical and zonal thermal advections were less important.
      
Thermal advection in the tropical Atlantic upper layer
      
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  horizontal heat advection
During the afternoon when the sea breeze is well established, correction of the sensible heat flux with horizontal heat advection increases the measured sensible heat flux up to 100?W?m-2.
      
This study provides the first evidence to suggest that horizontal heat advection is a key factor influencing the upper-layer heat content.
      
The contribution of horizontal heat advection during the afternoon shows that a component of QH at zH does not reach zS.
      


The present paper consists of two different parts. The first part describes the averaged characteristics of the thermocline in the South China Sea. Investigation data collected at home and abroad from 1907 to 1990 are analyzed season by season. The statistical charcteristics of the thermocline in the South China Sea are discussed. The results show that the thermocline is of two types. One has radiative characteristics, and mainly appears in the northern shelves of the South China Sea, has evident annual variation,...

The present paper consists of two different parts. The first part describes the averaged characteristics of the thermocline in the South China Sea. Investigation data collected at home and abroad from 1907 to 1990 are analyzed season by season. The statistical charcteristics of the thermocline in the South China Sea are discussed. The results show that the thermocline is of two types. One has radiative characteristics, and mainly appears in the northern shelves of the South China Sea, has evident annual variation, and is notably the strongest in summer, weakest in winter. The other results from the interaction between the seawater masses, exist in the broad deep sea all the year round, and have no variation. The analysis also shows that the thermocline relates to the wind, sea current, tide and so on.The calculated pattern of the thermocline is presented in the second part. Based on some assumptions, the thermocline is studied by means of the one-dimensional heat balance equation for the northern South China Sea. Although it is simple, the calculated pattern agrees well with the observation results. The relative errors are only about 16%, 17%, and 20% in the thermocline depth, thickness and intensity, respectively.

根据现有1907—1990年南海大面调查资料,按1°×1°网格进行逐月的标准水层的温度统计。在此基础上采用3次样条函数的插值方法计算出整个南海温跃层的深度、厚度和强度并予以相应分析。分析表明,南海温跃层主要分为两种类型:第一类为辐射型,主要分布在南海北部的陆架区内,季节变化显著;第二类为不同水体叠置型,主要分布在广大深水区,它长年存在,季节变化较小。一种温跃层的一维积分预报模式,该模式是基于忽略热平流作用和水平热扩散的前提下,从局部热平衡方程出发,建立了受海面热收支及风混合作用下求解温度垂直分布及温跃层的时空变化。在南海北部水深约300m处进行了单站温跃层后报,结果表明,温跃层的深度、厚度和强度的相对误差均在30%以下。

Based on the characteristic of the self-simulation of the vertical temperature profile and the property that the integral of similarity function is equal to constant at each layer, the sea was divided into 4 layers. The heat conduction equations of similarity function were deduced with considering heating from sea surface and nonheat transform at bottom. The equation set consists of 7 characteristic values of the vertical structure for the intermediate cold water. After these values were calculated, they were...

Based on the characteristic of the self-simulation of the vertical temperature profile and the property that the integral of similarity function is equal to constant at each layer, the sea was divided into 4 layers. The heat conduction equations of similarity function were deduced with considering heating from sea surface and nonheat transform at bottom. The equation set consists of 7 characteristic values of the vertical structure for the intermediate cold water. After these values were calculated, they were substituted to the temperature formulas of the self-simulating function. The temperature profile can be predicted. In order to examine this model efficacy the hindcastings were done. The effectiveness for a given period of time is 5 d. The results shows that the root-mean square error between the predicted and measured of the characteristic temperature was lower than or equal to 0.23 1C , the characteristic depth was lower than or equal to 1.18 m and the profile temperature was lower than or equal to 0.20 1C . It is shown that the results of trial prediction are satisfactory.

文中,以水温垂直剖面的自模性将其由T-Z分布变为θ-η剖面为基础,在考虑海面加热,忽略热平流效应和来自海底的热通量情况下,将海洋分为4层,并在各层内利用其自模函数的积分趋于常量的特性,对引入自模函数的热传导方程进行推导运算,导出描述含中层冷水垂直热结构7个特征量的闭合方程组.当解得这些特征量之后,代入含有自模函数的温度表达式,即获得预报的整个水温剖面.为了检验模式的功能,我们利用东海西北部海域中27个测站,以5月5日和5月10日实测的特征量作为初值,分别试报了5月10日和5月15日的特征量及水温剖面.试报的结果表明:试报特征值和温度剖面与其实测值之间的平均绝对误差,特征温度小于或等于0.23℃,特征深度小于或等于1.18m,而水温剖面小于或等于0.20℃.由此可见,试报的效果是令人满意的.

According to the characteristics of vertical thermal structure of intermediate cold water, and considering the sea surface thermal and dynamical forcing factors, the shear stress and entrainment heat exchange in the interfaces of water layers, heat advection, mixing and topographic effect, firstly the closed ly relevant equations are derived by vertical integrating whole ocean and each layer, respectively based on primitive momentum, continuity and heat conduction equations. The equations can describe wind...

According to the characteristics of vertical thermal structure of intermediate cold water, and considering the sea surface thermal and dynamical forcing factors, the shear stress and entrainment heat exchange in the interfaces of water layers, heat advection, mixing and topographic effect, firstly the closed ly relevant equations are derived by vertical integrating whole ocean and each layer, respectively based on primitive momentum, continuity and heat conduction equations. The equations can describe wind driven interface fluctuation, the mean velocity and temperature fields in each layer. And after solving mean temperature field in each water layer T k (k=1, 2, 3, 4), the characterizing temperature in each relevant water interface are obtained, on the basis of the relation between T k and characterizing temperature. Finally, the three dimensional heat structure of ocean with intermediate cold water is constructed by means of temperature profile expression. In order to verify the function of the model, the trial predictions of three dimensional thermal structure in the study sea area on 15 May are made by valid time of 5 days. The comparison between the trial results and the measured ones is also carried out. The results show that the mean absolute error of water temperature trial prediction equals 0 25 ℃, so the results of the trial prediction is satisfactory.

根据含中层冷水海洋垂直热结构的特征 ,将其分为 4层 ,并考虑来自海面的热力和动力强迫因子、水层界面剪切应力和卷挟热交换、热平流、混合及地形影响等条件下 ,从原始动量、连续方程组及热传导方程出发 ,对整个海洋和各水层分别进行垂向积分 ,导出相应的描述风生界面起伏、各水层平均流场和温度场的闭合方程组 .当解得各水层的平均温度场Tk(k =1 ,2 ,3 ,4)后 ,根据Tk 与对应水层界面特征温度间的关系获得后者 ,最后通过水温剖面表达式获得含中层冷水海洋的三维热结构 .为了检验本模式的功能 ,以时效为 5d试报了 5月 1 5日研究海域的三维热结构 ,并将试报结果与实测值进行了比较 .结果表明 ,试报水温的均绝误差为 0 2 5℃ ,效果令人满意 .

 
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