3. A method named equivalent load of cut-down plastic stress was put forward, which extended the above two-node spatial non-linear thin-walled hybrid beam element to material non-linear field. The plastic constructive equation suited for thin-walled box beam was derived, the increment of plastic cut-down stress and its resultant, the plastic cut-down stress and its resultant were formulated. The calculation steps were listed out.

For a curved girder bridge there are practically two equivalent load distributions, the one is applicable for determining the bending moment of girder, and the other for computing the torsional moment and angle as well as the deflection of girder.

For structures with varying sections along the member within the region reinforcedwith a continuous prestressing tendon, and the effect of post-tensioning prestress on structures be-ing substituted equally by analogical loads, the suggested method will be simple and the results accurate.

In this article four cases are demonstrated, and the formula 0 78rh interpreted as the equivalcnt load length of internal water pressure shared by unit width of stiffener ring. In addition, equations in different cases and formulas of stress analysis are given.

We observed that the same normal grip force was used for equivalent loads generated by changes of mass, gravity or acceleration despite the fact that these loads required different motor commands to move the arm.

Thus, the total amount of work performed was significantly higher, and the work pulse on equivalent loads significantly lower during the summer than during the autumn.

The technique replaces the unknown peripheral forces and moments by a system of local statically equivalent loads.

A constitutively expressed protein visualized with Ponceau S is shown to verify equivalent loads.

A nonlinear response optimization problem is converted to a linear response optimization with equivalent loads.

The equivalent load approach is employed to implement the effect of prestressing tendon.

By using the principle of virtual work, the formula to compute the equivalent load vector of the initial stress was derived.

The algorithm alternates between the vibration analysis and static analysis to find the equivalent load vector and modify the stiffnesses.

One month after osteotomy the load force through the fixator in groups 1 and 2 was more than 20%, whereas the equivalent load force in group 3 was only about 5%.

The approach is based on using modal analysis to determine the equivalent load on the beam, then linear elastic fracture mechanics is used to calculate stress intensity factors (SIF).

By considering the curved multi-girder bridge as a girder system and assuming the stiffness of diaphragms to be uniformly distributed, the load distribution was analysed according to the classical statically indeterminate structural theory, as it had been previously done by the author in 1983, 1987 for straight girder bridges and arch bridges. The concept of "equivalent distributed load" was introduced. For a curved girder bridge there are practically two equivalent load distributions, the one is applicable...

By considering the curved multi-girder bridge as a girder system and assuming the stiffness of diaphragms to be uniformly distributed, the load distribution was analysed according to the classical statically indeterminate structural theory, as it had been previously done by the author in 1983, 1987 for straight girder bridges and arch bridges. The concept of "equivalent distributed load" was introduced. For a curved girder bridge there are practically two equivalent load distributions, the one is applicable for determining the bending moment of girder, and the other for computing the torsional moment and angle as well as the deflection of girder. The developed method was checked by the results of a model test.

In this paper, a method for calculating the analogical loads, i. e. equivalent loads for equallysubstituting the effect of prestressing in members with varying sections, caused by post-tensioningis presented. Both the formulas for calculating analogical loads as well as equivalent loads caused bypost-tensioning are derived. Both the differences and relations between these two kinds of loads areelucidated. For structures with varying sections along the member within the region reinforcedwith a continuous prestressing...

In this paper, a method for calculating the analogical loads, i. e. equivalent loads for equallysubstituting the effect of prestressing in members with varying sections, caused by post-tensioningis presented. Both the formulas for calculating analogical loads as well as equivalent loads caused bypost-tensioning are derived. Both the differences and relations between these two kinds of loads areelucidated. For structures with varying sections along the member within the region reinforcedwith a continuous prestressing tendon, and the effect of post-tensioning prestress on structures be-ing substituted equally by analogical loads, the suggested method will be simple and the results accurate.

In this article four cases are demonstrated, and the formula 0 78rh interpreted as the equivalcnt load length of internal water pressure shared by unit width of stiffener ring. In addition, equations in different cases and formulas of stress analysis are given. The classification of the effect of the adjacent stiffener ring and its values is suggested as well.