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地面摩擦
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  surface friction
     THE IMPACT OF SURFACE FRICTION AND OROGRAPHICAL FORCING ON THE EAST ASIA COASTAL CYCLOGENESIS
     地面摩擦和青藏高原对东亚海岸气旋发展的影响
短句来源
     Many authors have shown that in China, the contribution due to surface friction to the height tendency of an isobaric surface is of the same order of magnitude as those of the large-scale topographic influences and that under some special weather situations, the non-adiabatic heating is non-negligible to the height tendency even if in short-range forecasting.
     根据一些作者得到的結論:在中国地区,地面摩擦对等压面高度傾向的貢献与地形的貢献相同,以及在某些特殊天气形势下,即便是对短期天气預报来說,非絕热因子也是不能被忽略的。
短句来源
     In the developing of the heavy rainstorm and southwest vortex in July of 1981, the release of latent heat of precipitation plays the most important rule, the effect of barrier of Tibetan Plateau has an important rule, and the fluxes of surface sensible and latent heat, surface friction and lateral friction in boundary layer have a certain contributions to the development of southwest vortex, intensifing of upward motion, and the heavy rainfall as well.
     对这次西南涡及暴雨过程的发展,凝结潜热有最重要的影响,青藏高原地形的阻挡作用也有重要影响,地面感热和潜热通量、地面摩擦及边界层内的侧向摩擦对西南涡的发展、上升运动和降水的加强也有一定的贡献。
短句来源
     Based on the original operational limited area model, a new high resolution limited area model was developed and started operational run on May 15, 1996. Besides the increasements of horizontal resolution, the main improvements in the model are: (1) introduction of more reasonable physical processes, such as soil process, the budget of radiation on surface, surface friction and vertical diffusion in PBL;
     该文介绍了国家气象中心在原业务有限区模式基础上开发的一个新的高分辨率有限区模式(HLAFS).该模式除分辨率提高外,其主要改进表现在:(1)增加了地面土壤过程、地面辐射过程、地面摩擦及边界层垂直湍流输送;
短句来源
  “地面摩擦”译为未确定词的双语例句
     According to the flow feature, a two dimensional fluid dynamics model of airflow over mountain was set up, from the potential flow theory around cylinder with considering the velocity form of mountain.
     它根据过山气流的流动特点,按照绕圆柱流动理论,计入地面摩擦影响,同时用叠加背风涡的方法,建立了二维过山气流的流体力学模型,并经过坐标转换形成过山气流的三维流场。
短句来源
     The effects of both frictional convergence in the boundary layer and vertical horizontal internal frictions on the topographic standing waves are preliminarily discussed.
     给出了地形驻波的表达式并初步讨论了地面摩擦、垂直向及水平向内摩擦在地形驻波形成中的作用.
短句来源
     The model physics are orography, moisture process, time-dependent vertical stability, land surface heat budget, contrast between land and sea, climatic mean distribution of solar radiation absorbed by the land and sea surface in winter and parameterizations of long-wave radiation.
     模式含有:辐射、感热、水汽相变、水份循环、垂直稳定度的变化、垂直内摩擦、地面摩擦、地形、陆面热量平衡及海陆差异。
短句来源
     The present model,including more physical processes,is a six-level primitive equation modelfor Asia area with efficient and accurate numerical techniques for the computations of pressuregradient force and the initial fields in the vicinity of mountains in σ—coordinate.
     本文介绍的六层亚洲有限区域模式包含了地形作用和地面摩擦、动量、热量和水汽的水平和垂直方向扩散过程(其中包括了下垫面感热作用)、水汽凝结潜热、云和辐射作用以及积云对流等物理过程。 并运用新的有效的计算气压梯度力的方法。
短句来源
     It lays down a foundation for studying the relations between tire mechanics and contact pressure distribution as well asfriction characteristics of road surface. It also presents an effective way for tire test data processingand vehicle dynamics analysis.
     它可作为研究轮胎结构、地面摩擦特性以及压力分布与轮胎力学特性关系的基础,并为实验数据的处理和汽车动力学分析提供有效手段。
短句来源
  相似匹配句对
     AN ANALYSIS OF THE FRICTION DURING THE CONTRUCTION OF THE CONCRETE PLATES ON THE GROUND SURFACE
     混凝土梁与地面间的伸缩摩擦分析
短句来源
     THE IMPACT OF SURFACE FRICTION AND OROGRAPHICAL FORCING ON THE EAST ASIA COASTAL CYCLOGENESIS
     地面摩擦和青藏高原对东亚海岸气旋发展的影响
短句来源
     Friction Characteristics of Geotextile
     土工织物的摩擦特性
短句来源
     Friction and Testing of Rubbers
     橡胶的摩擦及试验
短句来源
     The renovating of stone material ground
     地面石材的翻新
短句来源
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  surface friction
Singular solution of boundary layer equations which can be extended continuously through the point of zero surface friction
      
The present case is distinguished by the structure of the free interaction region in a small neighborhood of the point of zero surface friction stress.
      
As a result, an integrodifferential equation describing the behavior of the surface friction stress function is obtained.
      
The effect of the principal determining parameters of the problem on the flow structure in the shock layer and the surface friction and heat transfer coefficients is analyzed.
      
Separation takes place along the limiting streamline at the points of which the component of the surface friction (calculated from the boundary-layer equations) that is orthogonal to this streamline has a break.
      
更多          
  ground friction
These include reduced ground friction (ice) and modified gravitation (moon walking).
      
For small values of ground friction coefficient and under the fulfillment of a certain condition on the function giving the depth of the sea, we prove the existence of a generalized periodic solution.
      
For example, an totally stable wheeled robot cannot measure the ground friction through a visual sensor.
      
However, accurate tire/ground friction models are difficult to obtain analytically.
      
This experimental result again shows that both contact detector and visual sensor are able to display the difference in the ground friction.
      
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Integrating with respect to time the equation for the balance of angular momentum of the atmosphere north of certain latitude (30°N say)we obtainIn the above equation ρ is thedensity; (?), the zonal wind; v, the meridional wind; R, the earth's radius; Ω, the angular speed-of the earth's rotation; dm, the mass element of the atmosphere; dτ, the volume element; ds, the area element on the earth's surface, and dσ, the urea element on the vertical surface over the latitudial circle of 30°N. The first two terms (in...

Integrating with respect to time the equation for the balance of angular momentum of the atmosphere north of certain latitude (30°N say)we obtainIn the above equation ρ is thedensity; (?), the zonal wind; v, the meridional wind; R, the earth's radius; Ω, the angular speed-of the earth's rotation; dm, the mass element of the atmosphere; dτ, the volume element; ds, the area element on the earth's surface, and dσ, the urea element on the vertical surface over the latitudial circle of 30°N. The first two terms (in the parenthesis) On the left side of (2) are evaluated from the mean westerlies in summer and winter given by Mintz. The last two terms on the left and the first two terms on the right side of (2) are evaluated from the mean surface pressure charts of July and January. The transfer of angular momentum across latitude 30°N given by Starr and White is used to evaluate the 3rd. term on the right. Then the value of the last two terms in the parenthesis on the right of (2) is calculated. The result agrees very well with that obtained by other authers.It is further found that: 1. From summer to winter the transfer of angular momentum from low to high latitudes by gross weather systems overcompensates the destruction by the earth's surface. The small residue of these two factors acounts for the main part (about85%)of increase of westerly circulation from summer to winter. The remaining small part of the increase of the westerly circulation may be acounted for by the advection of mass of the atmosphere, which carries the angular momentum due to earth's rotation (difference between the first two terms on the right and the last two terms on the left side of (2)).2. The transfer of angular momentum or the destruction of angular momentum, as well as the intensity of the westerly circulation has annual variation. However this annual variation is not of sine or cosine type, i,θ, the variation from summer to winter is not the opposite of that from winter to. summer. The property of this asymmetry is explained by the irreversible heat addition and subtraction. From winter, to summer heat is added to, and summer to winter heat is subtracted from the atmosphere (N.H.). Since the process of adding and subtracting heat is irreversible, the variation from summer to winter can not be symmetric to that from winter to summer.3. Transfer of angular momentum from easterlies to westerlies occurs mainly in the period of breakdown of zonal circulation (low index), mainly in the belt of longitudes of"extended troughs" (troughs extending from high to low latitudes) and "extended ridges" (ridges extending from low to highlatitudes), and mainly in the high levels of the atmosphere.

把30°N以北大气角動量平衡方程由七月積分到一月,則其中各項都可計算:此緯度以北大气相对西風角動量的改变可用Mintz平均西風冬夏分佈圖算出;地轉角動量的改变可用冬夏地面平均气压圖算出;通过30°N緯度的角動量的渦動輸送已为Starr和White算出,因此利用積分結果可求得30°N以北地面应力和山脈东西兩側气压差所引起的角動量消耗,結果与别的作者用别的方法所得數值極为符合。 作者更指出: 1.从夏到冬大型天气系統的角动量輸送勝过地面摩擦的消耗,从夏到冬西風环流增强的主要部分(約85%)即由於二者之差,西風环流增强的其餘一小部分則由於大气的質量平流,而引起地轉角動量的傳送。 2.角動量的输送,角動量的消耗以及西風环流强度都有年变化。但这种年变化並非正餘弦型,即从夏到冬的变化並不正是从冬到夏变化的反面,此种非对称性可由加熱过程和减熱过程的不可逆性解釋。在北半球从冬到夏对大气來说是加熱的,而从夏到冬大气失去熱量,因为加熟过程和減熱过程都不是可逆的,故从夏到冬的变化也不与从冬到夏的变化对称。 3.东風帶向西風帶的角動量輸送,主要發生於西風环流破坏的時候;主要發生於“引伸槽”和“引伸脊”的經度帶;同時也主要...

把30°N以北大气角動量平衡方程由七月積分到一月,則其中各項都可計算:此緯度以北大气相对西風角動量的改变可用Mintz平均西風冬夏分佈圖算出;地轉角動量的改变可用冬夏地面平均气压圖算出;通过30°N緯度的角動量的渦動輸送已为Starr和White算出,因此利用積分結果可求得30°N以北地面应力和山脈东西兩側气压差所引起的角動量消耗,結果与别的作者用别的方法所得數值極为符合。 作者更指出: 1.从夏到冬大型天气系統的角动量輸送勝过地面摩擦的消耗,从夏到冬西風环流增强的主要部分(約85%)即由於二者之差,西風环流增强的其餘一小部分則由於大气的質量平流,而引起地轉角動量的傳送。 2.角動量的输送,角動量的消耗以及西風环流强度都有年变化。但这种年变化並非正餘弦型,即从夏到冬的变化並不正是从冬到夏变化的反面,此种非对称性可由加熱过程和减熱过程的不可逆性解釋。在北半球从冬到夏对大气來说是加熱的,而从夏到冬大气失去熱量,因为加熟过程和減熱过程都不是可逆的,故从夏到冬的变化也不与从冬到夏的变化对称。 3.东風帶向西風帶的角動量輸送,主要發生於西風环流破坏的時候;主要發生於“引伸槽”和“引伸脊”的經度帶;同時也主要發生於大气的高層。

In the long-period numerical forcast models, many factors, such as non-adiabatic heating and friction, must be considered. The object of this paper is to study the stability of long wave under the influence of these factors. A two-level quasi-geostrophic model including the effect of non-adiabatic heating, friction and horizontal austausch (1)-(3) is used. The instability criterion is given as (10). In the case of baroclinic atmosphere without these factors the criterion agrees with that of Phillips'(fig. 1)....

In the long-period numerical forcast models, many factors, such as non-adiabatic heating and friction, must be considered. The object of this paper is to study the stability of long wave under the influence of these factors. A two-level quasi-geostrophic model including the effect of non-adiabatic heating, friction and horizontal austausch (1)-(3) is used. The instability criterion is given as (10). In the case of baroclinic atmosphere without these factors the criterion agrees with that of Phillips'(fig. 1). It is found that in barotropic atmosphere the friction and horizontal austausch are purely damping factors. In baroclinic atmosphere it is, however, not so simple. With the parameter A_T=A_v=0.00213 arc~2 day~(-1),k=0.26 day~(-1),ε=1.05 arc~(-2) day~(-1), A_1~2=30.4 arc~(-2), the curves of stability criterion are given in fig. 2. We notice in the figure that for sufficiently short wave or for small wind shear, these parameters are damping factors; but for long waves (m, n<3) the minimum baroclinity for initia'e instability is smaller than that for the case without these factors. Finally, the structure of the unstable wave.is shown in fig. 4a-b. Fig. 4a is without damping factors and the other is with these factors under the same baroclinity. It may be seen that these factors decrease the instability. In the case without damping factors the disturbance starts to damp when the temperature wave and pressure wave are in phase, but in the case with damping factors the disturbance starts to damp when the phase of temperature wave is still left behind the pressure wave (fig. 4c). This is because when the phase of temperature wave is left behind the pressure wave, there is release of potential energy and this energy is used to compensate the frictional loss.

本文中采用二层线性模式讨论了地面摩擦,水平热量交换和动量交换,以及长波辐射冷却等因子对长波稳定状况的影响.并且给出了相应的温压场结构,由理论上证实了当温度波还落后于气压波时,运动就已经开始阻尼的这个事实.

Many authors have shown that in China, the contribution due to surface friction to the height tendency of an isobaric surface is of the same order of magnitude as those of the large-scale topographic influences and that under some special weather situations, the non-adiabatic heating is non-negligible to the height tendency even if in short-range forecasting. By taking into consideration of above mentioned three effects, a two-parameter baroclinic model suitable for numerical weather prediction is derived from...

Many authors have shown that in China, the contribution due to surface friction to the height tendency of an isobaric surface is of the same order of magnitude as those of the large-scale topographic influences and that under some special weather situations, the non-adiabatic heating is non-negligible to the height tendency even if in short-range forecasting. By taking into consideration of above mentioned three effects, a two-parameter baroclinic model suitable for numerical weather prediction is derived from the combination of hydrodynamic and thermodynamic equations. The solutions of the system of prognostic equations are given. Then this paper deals with the truncation errors in the numerical weather prediction when a triangular grid-point system is used. Moreover, an optimum smoothing formulas for the field is developed. Finally, the author gives a brief discussion on the problem concerning the development of the large-scale baroclinic disturbances.

根据一些作者得到的結論:在中国地区,地面摩擦对等压面高度傾向的貢献与地形的貢献相同,以及在某些特殊天气形势下,即便是对短期天气預报来說,非絕热因子也是不能被忽略的。作者首先从流体力学与热力学方程出发,提出了一个适用于作数值預报的两参数模式,給出了問題的解答;其次,討論了在使用三角形差分网格时,数值預报的截断誤差問題,并根据試驗給出了一个适宜的場量平滑公式.最后,还扼要地討論了斜压扰动的发展問題。

 
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