In the paper, The result indicates that the optimum seeding height and the optimum seeding efficiency of liquid droplet seeding precipitation in warm cloud is restricted by vertical velocity of the air (w), Water content of the clouds (Q), radius of thd clouds drops (r), and thickness of the clouds (ΔH).
The results show that the distribution of convective clouds is evidently different in time and space, and mixed clouds are the main cloud water resources in South China, but warm clouds can not be ignored.
The convective bubbles were observed in the warm clouds under the middle of the cumulostratus on 21,June 1992. The bubbles clearly show that they are one kind of mesoscale organization. It suggests that the synoptic system is situable to produce convective bubbles. It's contrastly analysed that the particle concentration and the liquid water content are higher.
The effects of the fluctuating condensation of Markor type and the single discontinuous gravitational coagulation on closing the droplet growth gap in convective warm clouds pointed out by Mason and Fruppacher are considered .
This paper analyses climatic features of cloud and precipitation on the Leizhou Peninsula,researches cloud dynamics and forming mechanism of precipitation and artificial precipitation and catalyst,and summarizes test results. The conclusion is that : there are abundant resources of water in the air on the Leizhou peninsula; and mechanisms of precipitation of warm-cloud,cold-cloud and mixed-cloud are possible.
Contrast experiment show that this paper's retrieved variables are available to Kessler warm microphysical scheme and NCEP-3Class simple ice scheme, while Liuqijun simple ice scheme's forecast results are worse.
The three layers,ice crystal layer,supercooled water layer and warm water layer,contribute 7%,54% and 39% to the surface precipitation,respectively. The first layer seeds ice crystals and a little snow crystals to the feeder cloud (the second layer). And the second layer seeds snow crystals,graupel particles and raindrops to the feeder cloud(the third layer).
The hail embyros were formed mainly through conversion of cloud droplets to graupels in the hail clouds of the colder cloud base,while for the warmer cloud base, they were formed through the conversin of raindrops to graupels.
Rainfall that occurs during days without low OLR (weak convection with warm cloud tops or isolated deep convection) contributes to 69% of the total rainfall during dry sequences and 45% during wet sequences.
More locally it is embedded in a small warm cloud of density 0.07cm-3, temperature 7000 K, column density ～ 5 × 1017 cm-2 - which gives a mass of about 0.1M⊙.
It is suggested that the initiation of rainfall in a precipitating warm cloud can be viewed as an instability triggered by the presence of a power-law distribution.
A warm cloud seeding experiment under AARRP was carried out during 1995-1998.
Cloud cost with single window channel tends to overlook ice cloud and lower-level warm cloud.
Emission was detected toward molecular clouds with kinetic temperatures of 20-60 K (so-called "warm clouds").
For most sources, the statistical-equilibrium calculations yielded gas temperatures of about 20-30 K and densities of about 104-106 cm-3, which are typical for warm clouds.
On the use of poorly soluble hygroscopic substances for modification of warm clouds and fogs
Aircraft observations of electrical conductivity in warm clouds
The value of electrical conductivity in warm clouds is found to be in the order of 10-12 ohm-1 m-1 which is two orders higher than that observed in clear-air at cloud-base levels in some regions by other investigators.
An one-dimensional time-dependent model of precipitation in warm layer cloud is given. The influence of some factors on warm rain process and its initiation is tested. The process of rain enhancement by salt-seeding is simulated and discussed.
The initial stage echoes in convective clouds and their growth processes were observed by 711 type radar at Tunxi Anhui Province during June to July, 1979-1981. Analysis of the data yields the following conclusions: (1) In summer most of initial stage echoes are appeared in warm region of convective clouds. It implies that the dominant precipitation initiation mechanism in convective clouds at Tunxi is the condensation-coalescence process. (2) By the use of the thickness of echo (35 dbz), the rise velocity and...
The initial stage echoes in convective clouds and their growth processes were observed by 711 type radar at Tunxi Anhui Province during June to July, 1979-1981. Analysis of the data yields the following conclusions: (1) In summer most of initial stage echoes are appeared in warm region of convective clouds. It implies that the dominant precipitation initiation mechanism in convective clouds at Tunxi is the condensation-coalescence process. (2) By the use of the thickness of echo (35 dbz), the rise velocity and the height of echo top, and the height change of reflectivity core in the initial stage echo, the intensity of convective precipitation can be qualitatively estimated.