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前兆时间
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  precursor time
     By use of the dimensional analysis the following general relationship between the precursor time T,epicentral distance R and magnitude M of forthcoming earthquake with empirical coefficients m,C1,C2 which must be determined in the different concrete cases was obtained and discussedA Simple physical model of earthquake source development is studied for explaining the described three-stage development process of earthquake precursors.
     用量纲分析方法得出并讨论了前兆时间T与未来地震的震中距R及震级M之间的以下一般关系式,其经验系数m,C_1,C_2应在不同具体情况下分别定出:M=C_1l_(?) (TR~m)+C_2 为了解释所述的地震前兆的三阶段发展过程,文中研究了一个简单的震源孕育物理模式。
短句来源
     Using the data of seismomagnetic phenomena observed in China, the relationship between geomagnetic precursor time, anomalous amplitude, epicentral distance and earthquake magnitude is comprehensively analyzed.
     利用我国所观测到的震磁现象资料,综合分析了地磁前兆时间、异常幅度、震中距与地震震级之间的关系。
短句来源
  premonitory time
     The linear empirical relationships between lg△T, lgL, lgS and earthquake magnitude M have been constructed approximately, where △T, L and S are the premonitory time (duration), maximum linear dimension and the area of epicenter distribution of the seismic cluster respectively.
     研究了它们的时空特性。 近似建立了 lg△t,lgL,lgS 与震级 M 间的线性经验关系,此处△t,L,S 分别表示地震簇的前兆时间(持续时间)及其震中分布的最大线度与面积。
短句来源
  precursor period
     We also obtaindNthat precursor period and the variation of dt befor rupturing not only relation to strainharding and strain softing before and after the extremum stress but also environment conditoin (i. e. stiffness) and the mechanic property of rock.
     进一步推导还表明,在岩石主破裂前,前兆时间t和的变化不仅与极值应力前后的应变硬化及应变软化程度有关,且与环境刚度(压机刚度)及岩石自身的力学性质有关。
短句来源
  “前兆时间”译为未确定词的双语例句
     The mean time value of them were respectively 418,4.2 days and 2.8 hours;
     结果为:海城地震的前兆时间分布中存在三种前兆,其时间的均值分别为418天、4.2天和2.8小时;
短句来源
     In the light of the Weibull distribution theory,this paper makes a quantitative analysis of the frequency distribution of the precursory time and epicen-tral distance of the Haicheng (1975),Longling (1976),Tangshan (1976) and Songpan (1976) earthquakes,all of which occurred within the continental plate of china. Precursory temporal and spatial features are obtained respectively for the aforementioned 4 events as the following.
     本文应用书布尔(Weibull)分布理论对发生在中国大陆板内的海城地震(1975)、龙陵地震(1976)、唐山地震(1976)和松潘地震(1976)的前兆时间和震中距的频度分布进行了定量分析。
短句来源
     Generally speaking there is a tendency that seismomagnetic variation amplitudes,ranges in space and precursory times increase with earthquake magnitude.
     平均而言,地震越大,相应的震磁变化幅度、空间展布范围、前兆时间均有增大的趋势。
短句来源
     The results show that the model indicates a stage of instable acceleration rupture progress, in which the time length (defined as precursory time) depends on greatly the medium and stress environments of earthquake preparation;
     结果表明:该模型预示着一个失稳加速破裂扩展的阶段; 这个阶段的时间尺度(前兆时间)很大程度上依赖于地震孕育的介质环境和应力环境;
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      precursor time
    In this case the uplifted area had a radius of approximately 200 km, and the precursor time may have been about 30 years.
          
    It is demonstrated that the precursor time interval (τ) vs.M relation approximately fits in that for the τ vs.
          
    The precursor time observed 9±1.5 years is in fairly good agreement with current magnitude-precursor time relations.
          
    Empirical relations are given between earthquake magnitude and the epicentral distance of the farthest groundwater anomaly, and between earthquake magnitude and the precursor time of groundwater.
          
    It is obviously impossible to demonstrate in this study whether or not there is any relation between precursor time and earthquake magnitude.
          
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    Based on the analyses of abundent observational data of precursors before a series of strong and moderate earthquakes occurred in different regions of China,three basic stages of development process of the earthquake precursors have been discovered and studied.The α-stage may be characterized generally as a long stage in which the precursors develop from the focal region to the periphery.The β-stage indicates a very rapid propagation of the precursors,so they almost appear everywhere at the same time But during...

    Based on the analyses of abundent observational data of precursors before a series of strong and moderate earthquakes occurred in different regions of China,three basic stages of development process of the earthquake precursors have been discovered and studied.The α-stage may be characterized generally as a long stage in which the precursors develop from the focal region to the periphery.The β-stage indicates a very rapid propagation of the precursors,so they almost appear everywhere at the same time But during the γ-stage the precursors develop and recover from the periphery to the focal region.Then comes the extremely short stage immediately prior to the main rupture,and at last the main shock occurs.By use of the dimensional analysis the following general relationship between the precursor time T,epicentral distance R and magnitude M of forthcoming earthquake with empirical coefficients m,C1,C2 which must be determined in the different concrete cases was obtained and discussedA Simple physical model of earthquake source development is studied for explaining the described three-stage development process of earthquake precursors.In this model the concepts of instability caused by fluid (water) diffusion and wave -like long-period deformation induced by premonitory aseismic-slip are presented and the three stages of the development of precursors may be related to three corresponding stages of the preparatory process of earthquakes.According to the results obtained in this paper,three stages of earthquake prediction can be discriminated on the physical basis.

    本文以我国一系列强震及中强震前的丰富的前兆观测资料为基础,发现并研究了地震前兆过程的三个基本阶段。α阶段总的说来是前兆从震源区向外围地区发展的一个较长的阶段。β阶段表现出地震前兆有一个快速的发展,因而前兆几乎在各处同时出现。在γ阶段上,地震前兆则从外围地区向震源区发展与恢复。然后就要出现临震异常阶段,最后发生主震。 用量纲分析方法得出并讨论了前兆时间T与未来地震的震中距R及震级M之间的以下一般关系式,其经验系数m,C_1,C_2应在不同具体情况下分别定出:M=C_1l_(?)(TR~m)+C_2 为了解释所述的地震前兆的三阶段发展过程,文中研究了一个简单的震源孕育物理模式。该模式引用了流体(水)扩散引起失稳及震前的非地震滑动引起波动状长周期形变的概念,而地震前兆的三个发展阶段则可以与地震孕育过程的三个相应阶段相联系。 根据本文所得的结果,地震预报的三个阶段可以在物理基础上来进行划分。

    In the light of the Weibull distribution theory,this paper makes a quantitative analysis of the frequency distribution of the precursory time and epicen-tral distance of the Haicheng (1975),Longling (1976),Tangshan (1976) and Songpan (1976) earthquakes,all of which occurred within the continental plate of china.Precursory temporal and spatial features are obtained respectively for the aforementioned 4 events as the following.Three kinds of precursors existed in the distribufion of precursory times during the...

    In the light of the Weibull distribution theory,this paper makes a quantitative analysis of the frequency distribution of the precursory time and epicen-tral distance of the Haicheng (1975),Longling (1976),Tangshan (1976) and Songpan (1976) earthquakes,all of which occurred within the continental plate of china.Precursory temporal and spatial features are obtained respectively for the aforementioned 4 events as the following.Three kinds of precursors existed in the distribufion of precursory times during the Haicheng earthquake.The mean time value of them were respectively 418,4.2 days and 2.8 hours; 2 kinds of precursors emerged prior to the occurrence of theTangshan earthquake,the mean time value of which were 497 and 21 days respectively.Kind 3 precursors seemed to be predominant before the Longlingand Songpan earthquakes,the mean time value of which were 50 and 25 daysrespectively.The frequency distribution of focal distance of the precursor-emerging localities was basically similar but for different mean values for each of the shockswhich were.Haicheng.139 km,Longling.228 km,Tangshan.123 km,Songpan.179 km.The above-listed result shows the temporal and spatial features of the events are not the same.This might have something to do with the types of intra-plate earthquakes in continental China,and essentially,they might also be related to the medium conditions of the earthquake sites,e.g.homogeneity,degree of fracturing,etc.Result of the analysis also show that earthquake precursors do not emerge randomly at any locality or any time.On the contrary,they have stage predominance in time and regional predominance in space.Time sequence analysis of earthquake precursors helps people to understand the proccess of earthquake preparation and to make prediction of the occurrence time of future shocks.Analysis of the temporal and spatial sequences of earthquake precursors,on the other hand,helps people to emplace with a scientific point of view the observation stations for collecting more precursory data so as to predict the locality liable to future shocks.

    本文应用书布尔(Weibull)分布理论对发生在中国大陆板内的海城地震(1975)、龙陵地震(1976)、唐山地震(1976)和松潘地震(1976)的前兆时间和震中距的频度分布进行了定量分析。分别得到四个地震的前兆时空特征。结果为:海城地震的前兆时间分布中存在三种前兆,其时间的均值分别为418天、4.2天和2.8小时;唐山地震的前兆为两种,其时间的均值为497天和21天;龙陵地震和松潘地震的前兆似乎第三种前兆占优势,其时间的均值分別为50天和25天。前兆出现点的震中距的频度分布基本相似,但均值不同,其均值是:海城地震为139公里,龙陵地震为228公里,唐山地震为123公里,松潘地震为179公里。以上结果表明它们的时空特征是不相同的。其原因可能与中国大陆板内地震的类型有关。本质上与地震所处介质条件(均匀性、破碎程度等)有关。 分析结果表明,地震前兆并非在任何地点任何时刻杂乱无章的出现,而是在时间上具有阶段优势性,在空间上具有地区优势性。地震前兆的时间系列分析有助于认识地震的孕育过程和时间的预报,而地霞前兆的空间系列分析,则有助于前兆观测点的科学布局进而捕捉更多的前兆信息和地点的预报。

    A method of fuzzy mathematics has been applied to the recognition of seismic clusters from earthquake catalogues in a given region. A seismic cluster consists of a series of earthquakes related to each other in time and space. Every strong earthquake may be preceded by its seismic cluster. The fuzzy relative degree between two earthquakes has been determined as a function of time interval△t and distance △s by the formula:After calculating the degrees of relatedness of all earthquakes with M≥M0 in some region...

    A method of fuzzy mathematics has been applied to the recognition of seismic clusters from earthquake catalogues in a given region. A seismic cluster consists of a series of earthquakes related to each other in time and space. Every strong earthquake may be preceded by its seismic cluster. The fuzzy relative degree between two earthquakes has been determined as a function of time interval△t and distance △s by the formula:After calculating the degrees of relatedness of all earthquakes with M≥M0 in some region and taking an empirical parameter A, the seismic clusters can be recognized according to the principle of fuzzy netting.By use of seismic clusters the seismicity patterns of strong earthquakes can be recognized and studied more clearly, simply and quantitatively.This method have been applied to the recognition of seismic clusters and the study of seismicity pattern of earthquakes in North China and Southwest China. The seismic clusters of 13 large earthquakes (M≥6.5) have been recognized clearly, and their temporal and spatial distributions studied. The linear empirical relationships between lg△T, lgL, lgS and earthquake magnitude M have been constructed approximately, where △T, L and S are the premonitory time (duration), maximum linear dimension and the area of epicenter distribution of the seismic cluster respectively. Obviously, these relationships may be useful to earthquake prediction researches.

    本文应用模糊数学方法从给定地区的地震目录中识别出地震簇。这些地震簇由一系列时空相关的地震组成,每一次强震前都可能有其地震簇出现。两次地震的函数由以下公式来确定:(?)计算出某一地区所有 M≥M_0地震相互之间的联系强度,并取一个经验参数λ之后,就可以根据编网原则识别出地震簇。利用地震簇,可以把强震的地震活动性图象识别得更清楚,简单和定量化。此方法曾用于我国大华北及西南地区的地震簇识别与地震活动图象研究。清楚地识别出了13次大震(M≥6.5)的地震簇。研究了它们的时空特性。近似建立了 lg△t,lgL,lgS 与震级 M 间的线性经验关系,此处△t,L,S 分别表示地震簇的前兆时间(持续时间)及其震中分布的最大线度与面积。显然,这些关系式对地震预报研究可能有一定用途。

     
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