By Mesri creep model, using the Mindlin stress formula to calculate the stress induced by the load of pile; and using Boussinesq stress formula to calculate the stress induced by the load of raft;

4. Referring to the calculating results of the 4-component model, the feasibilities of the three models are compared, and the 3-component model is considered as the optimum creep model.

By introducing Singh-Mitchell creep equation,the drained and undrained creep models of soft soil are proposed,in which exponential function is adopted for stress-strain relationship and power function for strain-time relationship.

2. The cause of deformation and creep mechanism of fill-up component were analyzed And the theoretical and practical analysis on the creep models ofwere performed, a four element Schiffman model was selected to simulate thecreep effect of the fill-up component.

According to the typical components of MSW in Chongqing City, the authorsconfect samples for creep compressive test indoors. By means of loading respectively, aseries of testing curves are achieved. Then two kinds of creep models called HK Modeland PTH Model are established based on the Theory of Creep Model and the testing data.

The rutting prediction method for steel bridge deck with thermal-plastic asphalt mixture surfacing is proposed by the creep models provided by current FEM ANSYS software and layer-strain method,and its parameters are investigated.

With the creep models of rock and joints obtained by back analysis for experiment data the influence of some parameters on uniaxial creep of rock mass cut by three sets of intersected joints is analyzed.

The rheologic model of soft rock has been discussed, the expansion and rheologic behavior for soft rock has been studied, based on the combination of experiment and numerical analysis.

Based on the displacement data obtained from the model tests, a displacement reverse analsis on the creepage of the frozen wall, a problem of multiple parameters, is realized by means of the finite element method.

On the long-term strength of metals and the ideal-creep model

Scaling of the current-voltage characteristics of superconducting films in the flux creep model

The experimental dependences R(T) are analyzed within the Ambegaokar-Halperin model of thermal fluctuations in Josephson junctions and the flux creep model.

In the range of strong magnetic fields (from 103 to 6 × 104 Oe), the dissipation obeys the Arrhenius law R ～ exp(-U(H)/T)], which is characteristic of the flux creep model with a temperature-independent pinning energy U(H).

Recognition of creep model of layer composite rock mass and its application

It is found that in this case, it is not necessary to introduce any crossover from plastic creep to elastic creep models at the fishtail line.

Three deviatoric creep models, the single dash-pot, the Maxwell, and the three-parameter model are considered.

Comparison of these predictions with those based on creep models incorporating only diffusional flow are made.

The possible creep mechanisms involved in high temperature creep deformation of single crystal oxides are discussed by comparing the collected creep data with theoretical creep models.

The Θ-Projection and Garofalo creep models describe the variations of the creep curve shape at different temperatures and stress levels reasonably well.

In this paper a stability and deformation analysis of underground opening surrounded by non-linear visco-elastic rock masses is given. Non-linear stress-strain relationship associated with Burgers Model of creep deformation is used as the mathematical model. For calculation, the finite element method based on the Galerkin weighted residual principle is adopted, by using quadrilateral isoparametric elements. In the course of computation the sequence of excavation has been considered and the so-called stress transfer...

In this paper a stability and deformation analysis of underground opening surrounded by non-linear visco-elastic rock masses is given. Non-linear stress-strain relationship associated with Burgers Model of creep deformation is used as the mathematical model. For calculation, the finite element method based on the Galerkin weighted residual principle is adopted, by using quadrilateral isoparametric elements. In the course of computation the sequence of excavation has been considered and the so-called stress transfer technique for elements, over-stressed either by shear stress or by tensile stress. has been adopted. The computation procedure are as follows. 1) Determine the initial stress {σ_0} in the rock.The calculation is proceeded with non-linear stress-strain formula by iteration method. 2) Assume the initial displacement of the rock to be xero {D_0}=0 and use middle increment method to calculate the stress increment {△σ_I}, strain increment {d△ε_I} and displacement increment {△D_I}. Then superimpose to corresponding initial value to obtain the instantaneous non-linear elastic stress,strain and displacement at the end of the first stage of excavation; 3) Compute the stress level to find out the extent of the plastic zone developed in the rook. 4) For elements with principal tension stresses, no tension analysis would be employed,and for elements with over shearing stresses, the analysis of no over shearing stress would be employed to calculate the modified displacement {D_I}, stress {σ_I}, strain {ε_I} and stress level of the first stage of excavation; 5) Divide the time into steps △t_1. △t_2.......and calculate redistribution of stresses induced by rheologic change. Consequently the displacement, stress, strain are worekd out till the beginning of the second stage of excavation. 6) For the second stage of excavation,apply the same procedures as 1)—5) to obtain the stress {σ_I}, strain {ε_I} and displacement {D_I} for this stage. The calculation would be conducted for further stages in the same way. Two illustrative examples are given.It is shown that the results obtained by the method proposed in this paper are quite different from those by linearly elastic theory. Method in this paper, comprehensively taking many factors into account, is claimed to be more rational. With the aid of the computer program, it can be used to calculate stress, strain, displacement and stability of rock surrounding opening of any shape either with or without homogeneity. With some slight modification, this method can also be used to solve geotechnical problems concerning seepage flow,joint, stratification and faults.

The intercalated clay layer is a weak intermediate clay layer. It was formed from thin layers of soft clayrock after being crushed by bedding slip and weathered by the physics-chemical process of groundwater. The special genesis of intercalated clay layers makes their microstructure and mechanical properties differ from those of natural clay. We have cut down a number of undisturbed samples with success from the sandstone-shale system by means of cutting machine, and conducted drained ah ear creep tests to study...

The intercalated clay layer is a weak intermediate clay layer. It was formed from thin layers of soft clayrock after being crushed by bedding slip and weathered by the physics-chemical process of groundwater. The special genesis of intercalated clay layers makes their microstructure and mechanical properties differ from those of natural clay. We have cut down a number of undisturbed samples with success from the sandstone-shale system by means of cutting machine, and conducted drained ah ear creep tests to study their creep behavior and equation. Meanwhile, we have also examined the change of their microstructure during creep by scanning electron microscope. According to the test results, we established perimental equations for intercalated clay layers, we found that the curve-fltting expression for primary creep stage are power laws of the form r=at~, n is a positive constant less than 1, or_1 they can be approximated by r_1=(1-exp-()). For the steady state of creep, the creep can be represented by the equation r_2=r_(min) t, and for accelerated creep, the famous pure Saito′s Relation is fit. The equation is r_3=c+dln[(t_1-t_2)/(t_1-t)]. On the basis of the above empirical equations,we worked out a complex model of creep. By combining a Kelvin model and a Bingham model in series, we obtained a complex model which could reprent the primary and steady state creep stage. A special dashpot having two swiveling holey piston is used to describ the change process of viscosity η_3 during accelerated creep stage. Combining the dashpot and Kelvin-Binghan model in a special way, we got a complex model of the whole creep process. By examining the change of microstructure during creep, we found that the structure hardening and structure softening processes exist simultaneously in the whole process of creep. In the stage of primary creep, the hardening is dominant then it becomes equilibrated with structure softening during steady state creep. Finally, the structure softening becomes dominant in accelerated creep stage up to failure.

The Intraplate fault network is a dynamic system with the dissipative structure properties, which moves to the stable state through thc self-organization process. The normal and inherited motion of faults is an image of the stable state of system. The nonlinear rheological model of rock, combining with practie observation data, can reliably give the image about the stable state of fault network system. It is undoubted that anomaly is departure from stable state, and that there are fault-motion anomalies with...

The Intraplate fault network is a dynamic system with the dissipative structure properties, which moves to the stable state through thc self-organization process. The normal and inherited motion of faults is an image of the stable state of system. The nonlinear rheological model of rock, combining with practie observation data, can reliably give the image about the stable state of fault network system. It is undoubted that anomaly is departure from stable state, and that there are fault-motion anomalies with both source-precursor and field-precursor proporeties in intrapate fault network. During the process of moving towards the stable state, the system shows a time-space coordination of anomalies, which can provide a way for prediction of earthquake.The colonial anomalies made of information combination are more reliable than the sole anomaly and have more clcarly physical significance. In this paper, the indicex of distinguishing anomaly and some criterions about information of earthquake elements are presented concretely.