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  downstream face
     The temperature on the downstream face reached its peak value of 304℃ in 5 days after the pouring of concrete.
     坝块内部下游面温度达到最高值是混凝土浇筑后5d,为30 4℃;
短句来源
     Genetic analysis of cracks on downstream face of Longyangxia Dam
     龙羊峡大坝下游面裂缝成因分析
短句来源
     Longyangxia dam has undergone the tribulation of 50 years meet flood in 1989and 2581.08 m high water level in 1999 since it was operated from Oct 1986. Therewere some “doubtful points” during this period, especially the cracks (the maximumdepth was 6 m) on downstream face which were found in the work of safetyauthentication in 1999. What caused the doubtful point of the deformation and thecracks?
     龙羊峡大坝从 1986 年 10 月下闸蓄水开始运行以来,经历了 1989 年 50 年一遇洪水,1999 年的 2581.08 米高水位的考验,其间大坝变形方面曾出现过一些“疑点”,尤其是 1999 年在大坝安全鉴定工作中发现的坝下游面存在的裂缝(经检测,裂缝最大深度约 6 米)。
短句来源
     To analyze the reason of cracks on downstream face of the Longyangxia Dam discovered during the safety assessment for final acceptance, three dimensional finite element model was formed and its parameters were checked using measured displacement value of the dam. Possible load conditions lead to cracks was selected. Stress distribution was calculated considering and not considering opening of transverse joints.
     针对龙羊峡工程安全鉴定过程中发现的坝下游面裂缝,通过建立三维有限元模型,根据实测资料分析裂缝发生的荷载工况,然后用有限元计算的典型荷载工况的位移值与实测值比较,验证有限元模型和计算参数的合理性,并分析计算工况下不考虑横缝与考虑横缝开裂(不同深度)时,龙羊峡大坝下游部位的应力,以达到分析裂缝成因的目的.
短句来源
     Analysis of Fracture Safety of Downstream Face Crack in a Concrete Gravity Arch Dam
     混凝土重力拱坝下游面裂缝断裂稳定性初析
短句来源
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  downstream surface
     the crevices are seen at the dams downstream surface after a loading of 6.0 P0;
     在6.0P0以后坝体下游面出现可见裂缝;
短句来源
     the upstream and downstream surface of the core wall present compressive strain, the upstream & downstream strains are -21.53 kμε and-19.30 kμε respectively;
     心墙上下游面均为压应变,上下游面平均压应变分别为-21.53kμε和-19.30kμε;
短句来源
     Study and Control on Crack near the Downstream Surface of Chencun Dam at El.105.00 m
     对陈村大坝下游面105.00m高程裂缝的研究及控制
短句来源
     Research on the Structural Strength of Penstock on Gravity Dam Downstream Surface
     重力坝下游面压力管道结构强度的研究
短句来源
     The Strength and Deformation of Reinforced Concrete Penstock with Steel Lining Located on the Downstream Surface of Concrete Dam
     混凝土坝下游面钢衬钢筋混凝土压力管道的强度和变形
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  “下游面”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Based on the research achievement of Document [2] and [3], a method is presented for calculating the temperature variation field of arch dam with insulation layer.
     为了降低温度荷载,在拱坝下游面粘贴聚苯乙烯塑料板作为永久保温层,在文献[2]、[3]研究基础上,提出了有保温层拱坝变化温度场的计算方法。
短句来源
     Calculation and Analysis on Seismic Resistance of Groove Type Penstock in the Downstream of Gravity Dams
     重力坝下游面浅槽式压力管道的抗震计算分析
短句来源
     Nonlinear finite element analysis of steel lined reinforcedconcrete penstocks of downstream concrete dam
     坝下游面钢衬钢筋混凝土管非线性有限元分析
短句来源
     Cracks were mainly caused by temperature drop and also influenced by relatively high water level.
     经过裂缝成因分析可知,龙羊峡大坝下游面裂缝主要是由温降引起的,较高的水位对其也有一定影响.
短句来源
     Probe into anti-seepage method for DS face of concrete dam construction joint
     混凝土坝施工缝下游面防渗方法的探讨
短句来源
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  downstream face
The data obtained were compared with the corresponding data for equivalent bodies with a plane downstream face.
      
The magnetic field is observed to initially increase the surface heat flux on the upstream face of the sphere and decrease it on the downstream face.
      
This lake was released by catastrophic collapse of the landslide, which occurred at 16:20 (local time) on 10th July 2004, after reported smaller failures of the saturated downstream face.
      
The principal stresses on the downstream face of the dam have a considerable seasonal variation, reaching 30-50 kg/cm2.
      
Thermal stress in a dam with frozen downstream face
      
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  downstream surface
This indicates that the observed electrons originate from a thin polycrystalline oxyde layer close to the downstream surface of emission.
      
In addition to the heterogeneity in Cx43 expression, endothelial cells on the upstream surface were 35% to 65% smaller than those on the corresponding downstream surface.
      
The IBL is defined as that part of the atmospheric surface layer where the influence of the downstream surface is noticeable.
      
The roughness length of the downstream surface was approximately tenfold that of the upstream roughness and, unlike all previous studies, attention was concentrated on the roughness sublayer region beneath the inertial (log-law) region.
      
However, availability of nitrogen and phosphorus from sludge-amended soils and their transfer in runoff may lead to eutrophication of downstream surface water.
      
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磨子潭水库是淠河上游的一个水库,在佛子岭水库以上,水库的任务是防洪和发电,总库容2.88亿公方,水电装机16,000瓩,年度能6,102万度,防洪方面配合佛子岭溢洪道扩大工程可保障佛子岭壩身千年一遇洪水不漫顶。控制流域面积670平方公里,枢纽工程有大体积肋墩壩一座,计划壩长343公尺,最大壩高约80公尺,隧洞一道,溢洪道一座,水电钢管一道及水电站一座,水库工程从1956年开工,目前正在浇筑壩体混凝土.大体积肋墩壩是一种比较新型的支撑壩,迄今仅有50多年历史,据我们现有资料统计,世界上已建成的约有30余座,最高者为110公尺,这种壩型的构造型式和结构性能在重力壩和薄型支撑壩(如连拱壩,平板壩)之间,也具备两者的优点,是一种很有前途的壩型。在进行大体积肋墩壩设计之初,先要选定各个肋墩的主要尺度,包括:(1)挡水面宽度,(2)上下游面坡度和(3)断面尺寸等三项,按照在同时满足稳定和应力的要求下,使整个壩的总造价为最小的原则来进行选择;挡水面的宽度宜尽量增大,但应考虑肋墩头部混凝土的温度和收缩影响。断面尺寸的最小厚度,应能满足抗渗耐久、施工以及国防的要求。上下游面坡度与肋墩断面尺寸或体积数量有...

磨子潭水库是淠河上游的一个水库,在佛子岭水库以上,水库的任务是防洪和发电,总库容2.88亿公方,水电装机16,000瓩,年度能6,102万度,防洪方面配合佛子岭溢洪道扩大工程可保障佛子岭壩身千年一遇洪水不漫顶。控制流域面积670平方公里,枢纽工程有大体积肋墩壩一座,计划壩长343公尺,最大壩高约80公尺,隧洞一道,溢洪道一座,水电钢管一道及水电站一座,水库工程从1956年开工,目前正在浇筑壩体混凝土.大体积肋墩壩是一种比较新型的支撑壩,迄今仅有50多年历史,据我们现有资料统计,世界上已建成的约有30余座,最高者为110公尺,这种壩型的构造型式和结构性能在重力壩和薄型支撑壩(如连拱壩,平板壩)之间,也具备两者的优点,是一种很有前途的壩型。在进行大体积肋墩壩设计之初,先要选定各个肋墩的主要尺度,包括:(1)挡水面宽度,(2)上下游面坡度和(3)断面尺寸等三项,按照在同时满足稳定和应力的要求下,使整个壩的总造价为最小的原则来进行选择;挡水面的宽度宜尽量增大,但应考虑肋墩头部混凝土的温度和收缩影响。断面尺寸的最小厚度,应能满足抗渗耐久、施工以及国防的要求。上下游面坡度与肋墩断面尺寸或体积数量有关,应由稳定,应力及经济等各项比较计算确定,在初步比较时,肋墩挡水面宽度对肋墩基本断面的厚度的比值 S 应根据肋墩的最大高度,最小厚度及最大挡水面宽度而定。上下游面坡度对体积数量的关系,可利用肋墩的基本断面(即假定肋墩为一平均等厚三角形断面)来计算,按照不同的 S 值在满足稳定和上游面不发生拉应力的条件下可直接定出最小的体积数量和相应的上下游面坡度,再作进一步断面尺寸的比较。经过比较,磨壩采用的各项尺度,按最大挡水面宽度18公尺,肋墩最小厚度2.8公尺选定结果为:上游面坡度在壩高80~20公尺为1∶0.5,20~10公尺为1∶0.4,10公尺以上为1∶0.3,下游面坡度为1∶0.4,断面尺寸(详见图7断面Ⅲ)大体积肋墩壩的稳定分析包括(1)抗滑稳定的核算(2)横向地震时倾复稳定和应力的校核(3)肋墩横向自由振动周期的计算(4)肋墩抵抗纵向弯曲的计算,磨壩稳定分析成果为:(1)抗滑稳定安全系数的最小值,Kc=1.0(f=0.7,c=0);K′_c=4.44(f_o=0.65,c=31公斤/公分~2);K_щ=1.03(谢尔康诺夫计算法);Kck=1.56;(2)抗横向倾复安全系数的最小值 K_o=5.40,横向地震时肋墩底部正应力σYmin1.20公斤/公分~2(压应力),(3)肋墩横向自由振动周期(最大值)T_o=0.366秒(E=2.6×10~6公斤/公分~2),0.466秒(E=1.6×10~6公斤/公分~2)(4)抗纵向弯曲安全系数(取壩高20公尺处平行下游面的截取断面)ξ=9.4。大体积肋墩壩的应力分析是研究各个肋墩内应力分布的情况,肋墩的应力分析严格地说应该是一个三向的问题。目前一般将肋墩分成若干个平面问题来研究,一为肋墩在与壩轴垂直的平面问题(即壩身侧向断面),一为与上述平面相正交,垂直于上游面的平面问题,前者用以研究肋墩平面的应力,后者则为研究肋墩头部的应力。肋墩平面的应力分析一般采用(1)应力函数法(2)几何法和(3)简捷法,磨壩采用简捷法分析。肋墩头部的应力采用应力函数法的有限差分方程计算,(即纲格法)。磨壩肋墩平面应力分析结果。肋墩内最大第一主应力在壩高80公尺(下游面)为28.7公斤/平方公分,最小第二主应力在壩高80公尺(肋墩中部)为-2.3公斤/平方公分。最大主切应力为14.53公斤/平方公分。壩体施工原来是用隧洞一期导流,但由于隧洞开工时间较迟,来不及待它鑿通后再进行围壩合龙闭气和壩基清理,后来改用三期导流的办法,第一第二期是在左右各半个河床内导流,第三期是在壩身内预留的二个底孔和隧洞中导流。这样就使得壩基土方石方的开挖和混凝土的浇筑有可能可以分区进行交义作业,大大提前了施工的进度。壩基开挖都采用鑽孔爆炸,最后用人工将震裂松动的石块全面加以剥除整修。壩基的土方工程由于二山复盖层很厚,最深处达18公尺,为加速风化土石层的开挖曾采用小型洞室爆破,效果良好,并不影响壩的基础,混凝土粗骨料采用河床中的卵石,最大粒径采用150公厘,河水经化验有浸蚀性,故渗加白土混合材。~#500普通水泥中掺加20%,仍能满足强度,抗冻(M_(30))抗渗(B_9)的要求。水泥加混合材在每公方混凝土中的用量~#170(九十天强度)为160公斤,水灰比为0.65。~#140(九十天强度)为149公斤,水灰比为0.7。混凝土熟料均用小矿车输送,壩身下面20公尺高部分全用排架桥向下翻倒浇筑,排架以上部分用钢塔升高,二山坡用卷扬道,二山顶则另有拌和场,壩身混凝土的最高日浇筑量为25,00公方,最高月浇筑量为45,000公方,从1956年12月起开始浇混凝土到1957年7月水库可起拦洪作用.

Several formulas for the computation of temperature field and temperature load in arch dams are presented in this paper. In these formulas, some actual conditions are taken into consideration,such as:the time lag of the water temperature variation on the upstream face compared with the air temperature variation on the downstream face of the dam, the effect of two dimensional heat conduction on top of the dam,two and three dimensional natural cooling problems arising from the heat generated internally by the...

Several formulas for the computation of temperature field and temperature load in arch dams are presented in this paper. In these formulas, some actual conditions are taken into consideration,such as:the time lag of the water temperature variation on the upstream face compared with the air temperature variation on the downstream face of the dam, the effect of two dimensional heat conduction on top of the dam,two and three dimensional natural cooling problems arising from the heat generated internally by the hydration of concrete, etc.Some numerical examples are included to demonstrate the computation and their results are used to compare with the field's data.

本文介绍一些计算拱坝温度场和温度荷载的公式.这些公式进一步考虑到某些实际情况,例如:上游面水温的变化比下游面气温滞后一段时间,坝顶二维热传导的影响,由混凝土水化热引起的二维和三维天然冷却问题等,比现有一些解答更接近实际.文中给出一些数例以便讨论并和现场实测的数值作比较. 本文分两篇,第一篇内容包括:一、无水化热温升的一维天然冷却;二、包括水化热温升在内的二维和三维天然冷却.第二篇包括:三、拱坝温度荷载的计算;四、算例和拱坝温度荷载计算中的一些问题;五、结束语.

A reinforced concrete penstock with steel lining located on the downstream surface of concrete dam is a structure of new type being developed both abroad and in China. In this paper the methods of stress calculation and strength analysis of such structure under its main load, i. e. internal water pressure, are established and have been adopted in the design of a large water power plant. Among others, the simplified method of an axis -symmetrical structure is much simpler than the method used abroad with the...

A reinforced concrete penstock with steel lining located on the downstream surface of concrete dam is a structure of new type being developed both abroad and in China. In this paper the methods of stress calculation and strength analysis of such structure under its main load, i. e. internal water pressure, are established and have been adopted in the design of a large water power plant. Among others, the simplified method of an axis -symmetrical structure is much simpler than the method used abroad with the same accuracy of the results obtained.

混凝土坝下游面钢衬钢筋混凝土压力管道是近年来在国内外发展起来的新型结构。本文提出了这种管道在内水压力作用下应力计算和强度分析的方法,已为我国某一大型水电站设计应用。其中简化为轴对称结构的计算方法,与国外的方法比较,简便得多,且可得相同的精度。

 
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