Earth pressure is the main load of a wharf, this paper establish simply calculationmodel and finite element method of ordinary wharf structure(retaining wall) andreinforced wharf structure(retaining wall), calculation and compare are done on thosemodel.

This makes known that the main load is borne by prestress cables,but the action of steel bars and affect of temperature stress should not be ignored in a pressure tunnel with circular anchor prestress liners.

These structures all belong to the wind sensitivity structure, as a result the wind load carries to become the main loads that controls its structure design to carry.

Recent years, with the development of tall (high-rise) building, wind loads, the same important as earthquake effect, becomes the main loads of structural design.

The main loads such as the water pressure, the sand pressure ,the uplift pressure and so on are carried on by both the gravity wall and the rockfill body .

A new non-uniform structure is presented to reduce the crosstalk and maximize the delivered power to the main load in VLSI circuits.

Thus, the load optimization problem at shakedown is stated as a pair of problems that are executed in parallel: the main load optimization and the verification of the prescribed magnitudes of the bounds on the residual deflections.

The gastrointestinal tract forms the first line of defense in the body against the main load of xenobiotics.

Furthermore, under the forefoot, the main load was located under the medial two rays in the control group, shifting towards the lateral rays in the patient group.

Cellulose was the main load-bearing component, pectin and xyloglucan leading to a decrease in modulus when incorporated.

Therefore, this study was performed to analyse the effect of HX on bone development in a model in which the main loads on bone are almost constant from infancy to adulthood.

The main loads on the thermal shield are electromagnetic load, gravity load and thermal load.

The calculation of transverse load distribution of arch bridges as a method for analysing the space distribution of stresses in the arch is an urgent, practical and theoretical problem yet to be solved. This paper attempts to offer an approach to the subject. As an approximation, a circular arch bridge with hinged ends and constant cross-section carrying radial external loads distributed along the arch according to trigonometric function is considered, taking into account especially the particularity of the...

The calculation of transverse load distribution of arch bridges as a method for analysing the space distribution of stresses in the arch is an urgent, practical and theoretical problem yet to be solved. This paper attempts to offer an approach to the subject. As an approximation, a circular arch bridge with hinged ends and constant cross-section carrying radial external loads distributed along the arch according to trigonometric function is considered, taking into account especially the particularity of the double-arched bridge (wave-form cross-sectional type ot arch bridge) which is popular in China. At first the chief loading forms, the stresses and deformations of a single arch are analysed. Thereupon the space distribution of the stresses and deformations in the arch system composed of single arches is calculated, yielding finally the required transverse load distribution of the axial force and bending moments of the arch bridge. This approach may be called a finite arch strip method. The treatment of the fixed end arch bridge, of the continuous arch bridge and of the superstructure on the arch is discussed and practical proposals are made for the solutions. The theoretical analysis shows that large longitudinal shears can be produced between the neighbouring arches, which may be the main cause of the tangential cracks in some existing arch bridges.

The hydro-pressure of fresh concrete on slipforms is one of main loadings to be considered in the design of the form system. This paper is a summary of the experimental results on site during the years 1974—1975. The method of calculation and empirical constants of the hydro-pressure of concrete propoed in this paper have been adopted by the technical specification on the slipform, as approved by the National Construction Committee. In this paper, the following problems are discussed: a) the design of pressure...

The hydro-pressure of fresh concrete on slipforms is one of main loadings to be considered in the design of the form system. This paper is a summary of the experimental results on site during the years 1974—1975. The method of calculation and empirical constants of the hydro-pressure of concrete propoed in this paper have been adopted by the technical specification on the slipform, as approved by the National Construction Committee. In this paper, the following problems are discussed: a) the design of pressure box; b) the maximum hydro-pressure exerted by fresh concrete upon the slipform, and its attenuation curve during and soon after construction; c) the hardening process of fresh concrete inside the slipform; d) curves and empirical formulas proposed for calculating the hydro-pressure of fresh concrete upon slipforms.

新浇混凝土对滑升模板的侧压力,是设计模板系统的主要荷载之一。本文为1974到1975两年间在施工现场实测结果的总结。文中提出的混凝土侧压力计算方法和经验数据已为国家建委批准的滑模技术规定所采用。本文主要讨论下列几个问题: a) 压力盒的设计; b) 在滑模施工中,新浇混凝土对模板的最大侧压力曲线及其衰减; c) 混凝土在模板中的成型过程; d) 新浇混凝土对滑升模板侧压力的计算图和公式。

For a hydraulic tunnel, water load is the main one. In the static calculation of such a tunnel, it is a common practice to treat the water load as a boundary force without consideration of the time factor of groundwater. This will result in considerable error in some cases. This paper proposes a method to take the water load as a field force and to make static calculation of the adjoining rock mass and lining of the tunnel by considering the time dependence of water load on excavating and lining of tunnel. Owing...

For a hydraulic tunnel, water load is the main one. In the static calculation of such a tunnel, it is a common practice to treat the water load as a boundary force without consideration of the time factor of groundwater. This will result in considerable error in some cases. This paper proposes a method to take the water load as a field force and to make static calculation of the adjoining rock mass and lining of the tunnel by considering the time dependence of water load on excavating and lining of tunnel. Owing to geological tectonic action, the rock mass is a medium invariably containing fissures. The calculation by way of seepage field allows this feature to be considered, and a corresponding mathematical model is used accordingly, in the static calculation, the rock mass is assumed as being anisotropic elastic medium, and consideration is made of the effect of joints and fissures, as well as of the dependenee of water load on the relative periods of tunnel excavating, supporting and lining. A special computer program SJDI is prepared on the basis of the above principle. This program also has function of calculating stress and displacement fields at various periods of tunnel excavatipg and supporting under the actions of seepage field and initial stre ssfield.