3. Temperature is main load in the course of experiment. In order to analyze stress, strain and deformation under temperature effect, and prepare for measuring and processing data correctly, thermal results such as heat output and hear error caused by temperature-change are assayed, and difference among fact strain, creating stress strain and measuring strain often mixed up each other is discussed.

Regular concrete structures for water conservancy usually work in abominable climate and environment, such as concrete dams. Temperature is main load of these structures, and alternant between positive and negative temperature would cause asymmetric deformation, crack, freezing-thawing damage and fatigue damage of structures, affecting their normal work and even resulting in disasters.

Regular concrete structures for water conservancy usually work in abominable climate and environment, such as concrete dams. Temperature is main load of these structures, and alternant between positive and negative temperature would cause asymmetric deformation, crack, freezing-thawing damage and fatigue damage of structures.

A new non-uniform structure is presented to reduce the crosstalk and maximize the delivered power to the main load in VLSI circuits.

Thus, the load optimization problem at shakedown is stated as a pair of problems that are executed in parallel: the main load optimization and the verification of the prescribed magnitudes of the bounds on the residual deflections.

The gastrointestinal tract forms the first line of defense in the body against the main load of xenobiotics.

Furthermore, under the forefoot, the main load was located under the medial two rays in the control group, shifting towards the lateral rays in the patient group.

Cellulose was the main load-bearing component, pectin and xyloglucan leading to a decrease in modulus when incorporated.

For a hydraulic tunnel, water load is the main one. In the static calculation of such a tunnel, it is a common practice to treat the water load as a boundary force without consideration of the time factor of groundwater. This will result in considerable error in some cases. This paper proposes a method to take the water load as a field force and to make static calculation of the adjoining rock mass and lining of the tunnel by considering the time dependence of water load on excavating and lining of tunnel. Owing...

For a hydraulic tunnel, water load is the main one. In the static calculation of such a tunnel, it is a common practice to treat the water load as a boundary force without consideration of the time factor of groundwater. This will result in considerable error in some cases. This paper proposes a method to take the water load as a field force and to make static calculation of the adjoining rock mass and lining of the tunnel by considering the time dependence of water load on excavating and lining of tunnel. Owing to geological tectonic action, the rock mass is a medium invariably containing fissures. The calculation by way of seepage field allows this feature to be considered, and a corresponding mathematical model is used accordingly, in the static calculation, the rock mass is assumed as being anisotropic elastic medium, and consideration is made of the effect of joints and fissures, as well as of the dependenee of water load on the relative periods of tunnel excavating, supporting and lining. A special computer program SJDI is prepared on the basis of the above principle. This program also has function of calculating stress and displacement fields at various periods of tunnel excavatipg and supporting under the actions of seepage field and initial stre ssfield.

Wind load is one of the major loads in structural design. Its value is a function of wind pressure. The basic wind pressure given by the Load Code of China should be determined by the probability distribution of the maximum basic wind pressure which may appear in 50 years. In fact, it is very difficult to get the probability distribution directly. Usually, it can be deduced from the distribution of year's basic wind pressure.Based on the historical data, it has been verified that both of the distribution of...

Wind load is one of the major loads in structural design. Its value is a function of wind pressure. The basic wind pressure given by the Load Code of China should be determined by the probability distribution of the maximum basic wind pressure which may appear in 50 years. In fact, it is very difficult to get the probability distribution directly. Usually, it can be deduced from the distribution of year's basic wind pressure.Based on the historical data, it has been verified that both of the distribution of year's basic wind pressure in China and the distribution of month's basic wind pressure in Beijing can be described as the extreme-type Ⅰ distribution. It is also verified that the distribution of standard period basic wind pressure can be deduced from the distribution of month's basic wind pressure and has the distribution of the extreme-type Ⅰ too.Mathematical expectation of standard period wind distribution is art important parameter, because in the current Load Code of China, basically the standard values of basic wind pressure equal the mathematical expectations of designed standard period wind distribution after taking into consideration a factor of wind direction. In this paper, the mathematical expectations of basic wind pressure distributions deduced from theory corresponding to eight different standard periods are obtained. Meanwhile, the comparison between the mathematical expectations and the averages of practical recorded data is made. The results of analysis indicate that the accuracies of estimated averages of wind velocities are quite high.In addition, a unified parameter and a coefficient of effect of wind direction are suggested.

The horizontal Frost heaving force acting on the retaining wall is one of the primary design loads in seasonal frost regions. In order to measure the horizontal frost heaving force and its distribution along the wall depth, we have built a superposition opposition retaining wall model which is in a fully restrained state in the Wanjia Frozen Soil Test-Field. Harbin suburb. This paper describes the design principles of the retaining wall. and methods of measuring the horizontal frost heaving force acting on the...

The horizontal Frost heaving force acting on the retaining wall is one of the primary design loads in seasonal frost regions. In order to measure the horizontal frost heaving force and its distribution along the wall depth, we have built a superposition opposition retaining wall model which is in a fully restrained state in the Wanjia Frozen Soil Test-Field. Harbin suburb. This paper describes the design principles of the retaining wall. and methods of measuring the horizontal frost heaving force acting on the retaining wall. with the load sensor and strain meter.