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The dropoff of the Nusselt number with increasing axial distance or radial angle from the impingement point was more pronounced for smaller z and d.


The quality of reduction of distal radius fractures is assessed mainly by degree of restoration of radial angle and palmar tilt.


We also studied the interobserver variability of different surgeons assessing radial angle and palmar tilt.


The mean standard deviation between surgeons was 3.2° for radial angle, 3.6° for conventional lateral palmar tilt, and 2.1° for 15° lateral palmar tilt.


Dorsal angulation occurred in 71 patients, shortening of the radius in 47 and flattening of the radial angle in 32.

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 In the rt diagram, where t is the cosmic time and r is the radial co ordinate defined as the proper radial distance divided by the scale factor, the locus of the incoming photon emitted at the big bang and reaching us now, r_(t), is a mirror image of the locus of the outgoing photon emitted at the big bang with r = 0, r+(t). The former graphs our present world picture while the latter traces the growth of the (particle) horizon sincethe big bang. The equation r_(t) = 1/2r+(t) determines an epoch tD withthe... In the rt diagram, where t is the cosmic time and r is the radial co ordinate defined as the proper radial distance divided by the scale factor, the locus of the incoming photon emitted at the big bang and reaching us now, r_(t), is a mirror image of the locus of the outgoing photon emitted at the big bang with r = 0, r+(t). The former graphs our present world picture while the latter traces the growth of the (particle) horizon sincethe big bang. The equation r_(t) = 1/2r+(t) determines an epoch tD withthe property that, for all events on the world picture before tD, the horizon problem exists to varying degrees of severity, while for events after tD, there is no horizon problem.For the flat Friedmann universe tD turns out to be quite recent (ZD≈ 1.25!), long after than the epoch of the MBR (microwave background radiation z≈103); for the inflationary model of Guth, to is near the beginning of the inflationary era, long before the MBR epoch.For a curved Friedmann universe the time axis of the Penrose diagram can be identified with the parameter η in the usual parametric representation of the scale factor and the space axis, with the angular radial coordinate X. Thus interpreted, the diagram readily gives ZD = 0.86 (3.66) for a closed (open) universe corresponding to H01= 20 × 109 yR and q0 = 1.65(Ω0 = 0.05).  在用定义为径向距离除以尺度因子的径向坐标r和宇宙时间t的rt图中,大爆炸时向我们发射、现在到达我们这里的光子的轨迹,r_(t),是大爆炸时我们向外发射光子轨迹,r+(t)的镜象。前者画出我们现今时刻的“世界图象”(world picture),而后者则描绘(粒子)视界自从大爆炸以来的增长。方程,r_(t)=～(1/2)r+(t)决定时刻t_D,它有如下性质:世界图象中凡早于t_D的事件多少都有视界问题,晚于t_D的事件就没有视界问题。 对于平直的Friedmann宇宙,算得t_D颇晚(相应的红移仅是z_D≈1.25!),远晚于微波背景辐射的时刻t_M(其红移为～10~3)。对于Guth的暴涨宇宙,算得t_D很接近暴涨期的开始,远早于t_M。 对于一个弯曲的Friedmann宇宙,Penrose图的时间轴可被证认为通常用来表述尺度因子演化的参数方程中的参数η,而其空间轴可被证认为径向角坐标x,由此马上得出:当哈勃时间H_0~(1)=20×10~9年时,对于一个减速参数q_0=1.65的封闭宇宙,z_D=0.86;对于一个密度参数Q_0=0.05的开放宇宙,z_D=3.66。  In this paper a new mathematical model and its solution for the cylindrical Error Separation Technique(CEST)are presented.According to the proposedmethod,the roundness and cylindricity of a workpiece,its radial and angularrotational errors,as well as the straight motion error of a measurement device canbe simultaneously separated and obtained by processing the three probe signalsunder one installation.The theory has found successful application in the measurement of highprecision cylindricity and highprecision... In this paper a new mathematical model and its solution for the cylindrical Error Separation Technique(CEST)are presented.According to the proposedmethod,the roundness and cylindricity of a workpiece,its radial and angularrotational errors,as well as the straight motion error of a measurement device canbe simultaneously separated and obtained by processing the three probe signalsunder one installation.The theory has found successful application in the measurement of highprecision cylindricity and highprecision rotational accuracy.  本文给出了移动三点法圆柱度误差分离的数学模型与求解方法.据此方法,只要拾取三传感器在一次安装下沿直行运动的输出信号,即可同时获得并准确分离工件的圆度、圆柱度误差与其径向、角向回转误差及测量架的直行运动误差.  Experiments were conducted in three swirl mist separators, with the internal diameters being 340, 480, and 700 mm, respectively. The separators were equipped with 18 sets of swirl vanes. The effects of superficial gas velocity and geometrical parameters, such as the elevation and the radial angle of the swirl vane, vane number, the ratio of separator body height to diameter on mist separation efficiency and pressure drop were tested. Results showed that the separation efficiency and pressure drop increased as... Experiments were conducted in three swirl mist separators, with the internal diameters being 340, 480, and 700 mm, respectively. The separators were equipped with 18 sets of swirl vanes. The effects of superficial gas velocity and geometrical parameters, such as the elevation and the radial angle of the swirl vane, vane number, the ratio of separator body height to diameter on mist separation efficiency and pressure drop were tested. Results showed that the separation efficiency and pressure drop increased as elevation, radial angle and vane number were increased. An optimal superficial gas velocity exists in the range from 5 to 9 m/s and it decreases slightly with scaleup. The optimal distance between the swirl vane and inner exiting tube is 32%~73% of the separator diameter. The mist separator should be designed to make the separation efficiency as high as possible, with the pressure drop less than 2 kPa. The structure of the swirl vane is one of the most important parameters by which pressure drop is determined. A pressure drop correlation was established based on experimental data and theoretic analysis. A scaleup procedure was suggested for the design of industrial mist separators. Pressure drops measured from two industrial scale separators (f1.52 m and f1.90 m) were found in good agreement with the predicted values, and the separation efficiency of greater than 95% was achieved.  对旋流板式气液分离器在3种规模、18种旋流板结构下进行了模型实验研究,考察了旋流板结构参数(径向角、仰角和叶片数量)对分离效率和压降的影响,并建立了预测分离器压降的关联式,为旋流板结构参数的确定提供了依据. 工业应用的标定结果表明分离器压降预测式是准确的,它可用于工业气液分离器的放大设计.   << 更多相关文摘 
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