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Ericerus pela Chavannes, the insect producing white wax,belongs to Coccidae,Homoptera. The female adult lays eggs while the male larva produces wax, whichis a well-known product from Southwest China. The wax secreted by the malelarvae may be boiled and extracted to result in something known as white wax.Its boiling point reaches above 82-83℃. It has manifold uses. Before WorldWar Ⅱ, besides the consumption at home, th greater part of this product wasexported abroad. The supply of the female adults of this wax...

Ericerus pela Chavannes, the insect producing white wax,belongs to Coccidae,Homoptera. The female adult lays eggs while the male larva produces wax, whichis a well-known product from Southwest China. The wax secreted by the malelarvae may be boiled and extracted to result in something known as white wax.Its boiling point reaches above 82-83℃. It has manifold uses. Before WorldWar Ⅱ, besides the consumption at home, th greater part of this product wasexported abroad. The supply of the female adults of this wax insect in the wax-producing districtusually appears short annually, due to a peculiarity in the growth of this creature;and therefore naturally exist two correlative districts, that is a district of adultproduction and one of wax production. As these two.districts are located morethan 500 kilometres apart,every year the female adults ready to be transplantedon he feeding trees in the district of wax production have to be supplied bythe district of adult production, and they must be carried over a long distance.The carriage of the female adults of the wax insect from one place to theother has been practiced for about five hundred years by the people engaged inwax production. This article reports on a test of transportation of the female adults of the wax insect from Paikuowan (白菓湾) in Hweili County (会理县), formerly of SikangProvince to Huhtaokou (核桃沟) in Omei County (峨眉县), Szechwan Province.Investigations in this connection were made from the April 30 to May 13, 1941. It has long been the aim of the growers to produce the female adults of theinsect and the wax in the same locality. With this realized, the area of wax pro-duction would be enlarged, and the quantity of wax increased. However, as the female adults of the insect in the distr .ct of wax produc-tion are subject to such natural adversities as geographical features, temperatureand humidity, parasitic enemies etc., up to the present they cannot be raised andsapplied insufficient quantity in this district. For this reason, to in prove themethod of transporting the adults female insects to the wax-producing district, toShorten the time on the way,and to increase the vitality of the male larvae-all these have become the crucial questions in the promotion of wax production. The principal explanation, knowh for centuries, with regard to the impossi-bility to raise the female adults of the insects in the district of wax productionhas been the peculiar fact that the female larvae could not be carried in quickorder to a place over 500 kilometres apart. The present test has proved that al-though the female larvae were, in the greater part, hatched out on the way, therewere still a part of them reaching the destination in safety. Valuable informat-ion was also obtained on the hatching rate of the male and female larvae on theway, the influence of environmental factors on the sex ratio, the different speciesof parasitic enemies, etc.. It is hoped thet the facts thus ascertained will be ofservice to improving the methods of wax production.

白蜡虫是我国的特产,古代农民远在元朝已有饲养。在过去全国的白蜡年产量约在五万至十万担间,据1918年重庆海关报告有一万一千余担,值银七十七万余海 关两。解放前一、二十年来,由于国民党反动派的不重视和摧残,已逐渐衰落。白蜡是化学工上的重要原料,用途很广,饲养蜡虫又是西南各省农民的主要副,而且农民群众已积累了非常丰富的传统经验。因此,为了总结群众经验,发扬科学遗产,改进饲养技术,振兴蜡,我们希望能引起有关方面的注意和进一步研究,除研究改进白蜡虫的经管技术外,又须注意白蜡在工上的用途。 白蜡虫的种蜡异地繁荣,在目前已成为自然的形势,而蜡区种虫不能自给,是白蜡发展上的基本障碍。我们通过本次测验之后,认为我国适于蜡虫(雄虫)繁育的地方很多,如四川、湖南、浙江、安徽、福建、江西、江苏等丘陵地带都可扑虫产蜡,关键问题在于改善运种方法。在目前我国交通运输已有普遍发展的基础上,只要用航空运种即可在短时间内将种虫运送至全国蜡区。扩大蜡区,增加农民副收入,发扬我国科学遗产,为国家创造财富,利用益虫为生产服务,在目前已完全有实现的可能。

~~

前燃料工部电管理总局东北设计分局于1952—1953年曾设计了东北某地22万伏高压送电线路。在苏联专家维金尼科夫的指导下,由于设计分局和东北电局同志们的努力.该线路于1954年1月27日胜利地全部建成。由于初次从事这项工作,设计部门缺乏经验,为了验证设计方法是否正确,铁塔工作是否可靠,特于1953年6月间进行了线路中为数最多的直线铁塔的真形实验。铁塔结构是参考苏联酒杯形铁塔型式进行设计的,高25.3公尺。由于该线路所在地区的地形对结构的要求,以及受当时施工条件的限制,因而采用螺栓结构,材料为钢3,四脚分别置于混凝土预制基础上。为了消除试验时基础可能产生位移而影响铁塔的试验结果起见,将基础特别加强。试验按照各种设计的受力情况进行,包括正常情况、事故情况及超荷情况;并将作用于导线及塔身的全部风力以当值风压代替,集中作用于横梁上。用经纬仪在塔的四面测定塔在受外荷作用时的挠曲情况,用千分表(因受当时设备条件的限制)测定主要构件的变形,再由变形推出构件中的应力大小。由于用千分表在高空观测构件的变形极为困难,同时实验前的准备工作亦不足,因而测定主要构件的应力极不准确,只能从塔身的...

前燃料工部电管理总局东北设计分局于1952—1953年曾设计了东北某地22万伏高压送电线路。在苏联专家维金尼科夫的指导下,由于设计分局和东北电局同志们的努力.该线路于1954年1月27日胜利地全部建成。由于初次从事这项工作,设计部门缺乏经验,为了验证设计方法是否正确,铁塔工作是否可靠,特于1953年6月间进行了线路中为数最多的直线铁塔的真形实验。铁塔结构是参考苏联酒杯形铁塔型式进行设计的,高25.3公尺。由于该线路所在地区的地形对结构的要求,以及受当时施工条件的限制,因而采用螺栓结构,材料为钢3,四脚分别置于混凝土预制基础上。为了消除试验时基础可能产生位移而影响铁塔的试验结果起见,将基础特别加强。试验按照各种设计的受力情况进行,包括正常情况、事故情况及超荷情况;并将作用于导线及塔身的全部风力以当值风压代替,集中作用于横梁上。用经纬仪在塔的四面测定塔在受外荷作用时的挠曲情况,用千分表(因受当时设备条件的限制)测定主要构件的变形,再由变形推出构件中的应力大小。由于用千分表在高空观测构件的变形极为困难,同时实验前的准备工作亦不足,因而测定主要构件的应力极不准确,只能从塔身的变化结果来判断铁塔的工作。根据测得的塔形变化结果可得下列结论:1)结构受重复荷重时,变形与荷重关系曲线中的剩余变形随荷重次数之增加而减少,即全结构的弹性模数随荷重次数之增加而提高,最后形成封闭环形;2)由变形荷重曲线可见第三点以下的变形稳定较早,可见膈材对结构的变形性质有良好影响。3)由各种实验的变形曲线的规律来看,结构中并无特别弱的局部缺陷部分;4)实测挠度皆比计算值大,特别是初次加荷的情况。因而铁塔结构的强度是安全可靠的,不过挠度和理论计算值相差过大,为了确定原因起见,继续在实验室内进行了螺栓接头的实验研究工作,并得出了螺栓接头的平均弹性模数值。最后建议在进行螺栓结构的挠度计算时,应将各焊件分成接头部分和非接头部分来计算,而整个结构则按照平均折算模数计算。根据螺栓接头的试验结果,按平均折算模数求得的铁塔挠度为:初次受荷时实测值小于计算值,重复受荷时实测值约和计算值相等。据此,足以证明铁塔设计是正确的,结构工作完全安全而可靠。

Citrus in South China is affected with a highly destructive disease known as"Yellow shoot".The disease is most serious in the Chaoshan and the Yuehchungdistricts of Kwangtung Province and in the Changchow district of Fukien Province.It has been known in the Chaoshan district for over 70 years but has becomeepiphytotic only since about 30 years ago.During this period,millions of Citrustrees have been killed. Citrus trees may be affected in any age.The characteristic symptoms of thedisease are general yellowing...

Citrus in South China is affected with a highly destructive disease known as"Yellow shoot".The disease is most serious in the Chaoshan and the Yuehchungdistricts of Kwangtung Province and in the Changchow district of Fukien Province.It has been known in the Chaoshan district for over 70 years but has becomeepiphytotic only since about 30 years ago.During this period,millions of Citrustrees have been killed. Citrus trees may be affected in any age.The characteristic symptoms of thedisease are general yellowing of some of the nearly mature new shoots put out insummer,autumn,or early winter,dropping of the yellow leaves,and rotting ofrootlets.In addition to these general symptoms in the early stage,fasciculationof branches and malformation of leaves (abnormally large or deformed in variousways) often occur on Ponkan and Chiaokan (C.reticulata) and are particularlycommon on sweet orange.On affected sweet orange trees may also be seenshortening of internodes,resulting in bunchy growth of branches,and downwardas well as upright growth of shoots.In a later stage,the affected tree puts outnew shoots as usual but such shoots generally become chlorotic showing zinc ormanganese deficiency symptoms.The midrib and lateral veins as well as theadjoining tissues of part of the older leaves turn yellow.The midrib and largerveins may also become enlarged and corky and often split on dorsal side,showingnitrogen and boron deficiency symptoms.Affected trees blossom earlier and moreheavily than usual but bear few fruits.On badly affected trees fruits matureearlier but do not color well and are often deformed.Defoliation and root rottingbecome progressively serious as the disease advances.Young trees below 7 yearsof age generally are killed in 1 to 2 years or sooner.Nursery trees are killedeven more quickly.Older trees decline less rapidly but generally become unpro-ductive in about 2 years after the first symptoms appear. Nearly all the species and varieties of Citrus grown in the affected area aresusceptible.The order of degree of susceptibility is as follows: Ponkan,Chiaokan,Chachihkan,Lukan,Tungkan (all (C.reticulata),various varieties of sweet orange(C.sinensis),Hungninmeng (hybrid of C.lemon and C.rcticulata) Nienchu (C.rcticulata),Shangmayu (C.graudis) and Shihchichu (C.mitis). Studies of the cause of the disease will be reported in a later paper.

广东的潮汕区、新会县、番禺縣、广州市郊,福建的龍溪縣、福州市郊,和广西的柳城、融縣、兴業縣、郁林縣的柑桔类,都發生一种毁滅性的病害称为黄梢,或黄龍病。病区各种柑桔类的各品种一般都很易感染。其感病程度的次序大約如下:栟柑、蕉柑、茶枝柑、蘆柑、桶柑、各种甜橙、紅檸檬、年桔、桑麻柚及四季桔。用实生苗繁殖的福州紅桔及廣柑(橙),和福建龍溪的坪山柚及文旦柚,則未見發病。各齡的柑桔樹——自苗木至20齡以上的老樹——都能感染,一般以3—8齡的幼樹受害最烈?静〉闹饕钗跗诓糠中律囊度烤然苹T谔鸪取薷毯徒陡躺嫌幸徊糠只苹蛘>G色的叶特别肥大或呈各种畸形狀态,有許多新梢簇生或束化。發病的枝条很快落叶。老枝上的叶有一部分亦黄化脫落。根系腐烂。至發病中期,新梢的叶多呈缺鋅或缺锰病狀,老叶呈缺氮及缺硼病狀,落叶及根腐更嚴重,开花早而多,結果少,部分枝条枯死。到后期,全株嚴重雕殘,終而枯死。本病在70—80年前在廣东潮汕区已有發现,但在近30年來始在各地蔓延成灾壳氨静≡诠愣鄙乔V州市郊及新会縣和福建龍溪縣已成为柑枯業發展的限制因素。

 
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