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反时针方向旋转
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    , while the others of ILS stations seem stable. Therefore, it can not be confirmed by ILS data that the coasts of the Pacific are rotating counter-clockwise.
    ,其他站都比较稳定,因此ILS资料不能证明太平洋沿岸现在正在按反时针方向旋转
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The distribution and arrangement of the segmental bronchi and blood vessels of the left lower lobe have been studied in fifty Chinese adult cadavers by the same methods as we did in the other four lobes.The bronchus of the left lower lobe usually divided into four segmental bronchi,namely the apical (B~6), the antero-medial basal (B~(7+8)), lateral basal (B~9), and the posterior basal (B~(10)). Occasionally, an extra one, the subapical bronchus (B~*), has been identified in 14% of the specimens in this series.The...

The distribution and arrangement of the segmental bronchi and blood vessels of the left lower lobe have been studied in fifty Chinese adult cadavers by the same methods as we did in the other four lobes.The bronchus of the left lower lobe usually divided into four segmental bronchi,namely the apical (B~6), the antero-medial basal (B~(7+8)), lateral basal (B~9), and the posterior basal (B~(10)). Occasionally, an extra one, the subapical bronchus (B~*), has been identified in 14% of the specimens in this series.The prevailing pattern (48%) of the branching of the apical bronchus is a bifurcation having the formula "B~6b, B~6a+c". The basal trunk bronchus frequently divides into two stems--commonly B~(7+8) and B~(9+10) (60%). The status of the medial basal bronchus in the left lower lobe has been discussed.Same reason as we have discussed in the bronchial pattern of the right lower lobe, the BX~*(9) and BX~*(10) of the lower lobe should be considered as a posterior ramus of B~9 and B~(10) respectively. The posterior ramus of the lateral basal bronchus (B~9c) has been found in 64% of the specimens, and that of the posterior basal (B~(10)c) in 88%. The distributive extents of the basal segmental bronchus of the left lower lobe, seems to present a tendency of more or less counterclockwise rotation, in contrast with the right lower lobe.In one-fourth of thespecimens, the mode of the branching of the basal artery ismuch more complicated than that of the basal ronchus. The prevailing pattern of thebranches of the apical segmental artery corresponds to the bronchial pattern having theformula "A~6b, A~6a+c" (30%). Similar to the basal trunk, A~(7+8) and A~(9+10) are the chiefpatterns (34%) of the branching of the basal artery. The subapical arteries (A~*) arefound in 14%; it may originate from the lateral basal artery (6%) or the posteriorbasal artery of the superior ramus of the anterior-basal subsegmental artery. Of specialinterest are the two specimens in which A~(10) is displaced upward and arises in commonwith A~6. Such an arrangement is clinically significant.The veins of the left lower lobe coincide with those of the other four lobes, mostof them are located between segments or subsegments. The venous pattern of the leftlower lobe resembles that of the right lower lobe, the left pulmonary vein received V~6and the common basal vein. The common basal veins receives two main tributaries, thesuperior and the inferior basal vein. The former is commonly formed by V~(7+8)a+V~9 and the latter by V~(10). Such instance is present in 36% of the specimens.

本文用解剖法考查了50例成年左肺下叶的支气管和血管。左下叶恒定的段支气管有四支,即尖段支气管(B~6),前内侧基底段支气管(B~(7+8)),外侧基底段支气管(B~9)和后基底段支气管(B~(10))。额外的尖下段支气管(B~*)的出现率为14%。 B~6常见的型式是单干类二分支型(B~6b,B~6a+c),为48%。基底干支气管以二分支型B~(7+8)、B~(9+10)式最多,占60%。本文讨论了B~7在左肺下叶是否作为独立肺段支气管而存在的问题。外侧基底段支气管后支(B~9C,即BX~*(9))的出现率为64%,后基底段支气管后支(B~(10)c,即BX~*(10))的出现率为88%。与右下叶相比较,左下叶各基底段支气管的分布范围有向反时针方向旋转的趋势。左下叶的动脉由叶间动脉发出,动脉的起源和分支型式较支气管复杂,但在分布上,动脉与支气管却紧密伴随。尖段动脉(A~6)的常见分支型式与尖段支气管一样,是单干类的二分支型(A~6b,A~6a+c),为30%。基底动脉干仍以二分支型(A~(7+8),A~(9+10))为最多,占34%。尖下段动脉(A~*)的出现率为14%,以起自A~9最多,为6%。...

本文用解剖法考查了50例成年左肺下叶的支气管和血管。左下叶恒定的段支气管有四支,即尖段支气管(B~6),前内侧基底段支气管(B~(7+8)),外侧基底段支气管(B~9)和后基底段支气管(B~(10))。额外的尖下段支气管(B~*)的出现率为14%。 B~6常见的型式是单干类二分支型(B~6b,B~6a+c),为48%。基底干支气管以二分支型B~(7+8)、B~(9+10)式最多,占60%。本文讨论了B~7在左肺下叶是否作为独立肺段支气管而存在的问题。外侧基底段支气管后支(B~9C,即BX~*(9))的出现率为64%,后基底段支气管后支(B~(10)c,即BX~*(10))的出现率为88%。与右下叶相比较,左下叶各基底段支气管的分布范围有向反时针方向旋转的趋势。左下叶的动脉由叶间动脉发出,动脉的起源和分支型式较支气管复杂,但在分布上,动脉与支气管却紧密伴随。尖段动脉(A~6)的常见分支型式与尖段支气管一样,是单干类的二分支型(A~6b,A~6a+c),为30%。基底动脉干仍以二分支型(A~(7+8),A~(9+10))为最多,占34%。尖下段动脉(A~*)的出现率为14%,以起自A~9最多,为6%。A~*与B~*同源者仅发现一例。此外,有两例后基底段动脉移位与尖段动脉合干,与支气管B~(10)移位和B~6合干一致,此种变异值得临床注意。左下叶的静脉也行于肺段间或肺亚段间,和右下叶一样,汇集成尖段静脉、上基底静脉和下基底静脉三大支。后二者先汇集成总基底静脉,再与尖段静脉组成左下肺静脉。总基底静脉以V~(7+8)a+V~9形成上基底静脉,V~(10)形成下基底静脉的型式最多,占36%。左下叶的支气管与动脉在组合型式上多不一致,支气管的变异较少,动脉的变异较多。

Using the data of ILS individual latitudes in a uniform system, we have got a new homogeneous sequence of coordinates of the earth's pole and analysed secular polar motion with it. In our calculation, some measures were adopted for keeping the stability of the system and the local drifts of ILS stations were derived for improving the coordinates. These methods are different from that of the Central Bureau of ILS and some obvious discrepancies exist between our results and theirs, especially in thesecular polar...

Using the data of ILS individual latitudes in a uniform system, we have got a new homogeneous sequence of coordinates of the earth's pole and analysed secular polar motion with it. In our calculation, some measures were adopted for keeping the stability of the system and the local drifts of ILS stations were derived for improving the coordinates. These methods are different from that of the Central Bureau of ILS and some obvious discrepancies exist between our results and theirs, especially in thesecular polar motion. We conclude that: 1. The mean pole of ILS have been shifting with a mean rate 0″.00305 per year and along the meridian 63.3° for the last 80 years. The level of confidence of this result is of 0.95. 2. The libration of the mean pole appears rather regular. There are 9.3, 18.6 and quasi-30 year components in the libration and, especially, the last one is prevailing. 3. Ukiah Station is drifting towards north with rate 0″.00276/yr. , while the others of ILS stations seem stable. Therefore, it can not be confirmed by ILS data that the coasts of the Pacific are rotating counter-clockwise.

用均匀系统的ILS个别纬度资料计算出一个新的均匀的极坐标序列,并用它分析长期极移。我们所得的结论是: 1.在过去的80年中,ILS平极的线性漂移沿着西经63°.3子午线,平均速度000305/Yr.,这个结果的置信度是0.95。 2.平极的天平动颇有规律,准30年项最突出,还发现有18.6年和9.3年项。 3.尤凯亚站的向北漂移速度是000276/Yr.,其他站都比较稳定,因此ILS资料不能证明太平洋沿岸现在正在按反时针方向旋转

The studying results indicate that before and after proton flares, clockwise and counter clockwise rotation of the sunspot groups are early or late exist for the same a sunspot group on the solar disk. The rotative angle of the sunspot group reach the largest within 1-2 days before the proton flare, after flare, due to magnetic flux ropes are slackened, therefore, the rotation of the sunspot groups are decelerated continually and finally rotate in the opposite direction, and a strong magnetic shear configurations...

The studying results indicate that before and after proton flares, clockwise and counter clockwise rotation of the sunspot groups are early or late exist for the same a sunspot group on the solar disk. The rotative angle of the sunspot group reach the largest within 1-2 days before the proton flare, after flare, due to magnetic flux ropes are slackened, therefore, the rotation of the sunspot groups are decelerated continually and finally rotate in the opposite direction, and a strong magnetic shear configurations and strong proton flares can occur once again. The common characteristics of the active regions of the strong proton flares are shown as follows: (1) The morphology of the spot is a single granular structure b type spot, that is many umbras with opposite magnetic polarities locked tightly in a singIe penumbra, and once they lock together, they never separate; (2) The area of the sunspot is greater than 1000×10-6hemi, the span of the sunspot groups on solar disk is greater than10°; (3)Sunspot groups had fast motion of the rotation. If the activity of the above active regions is already stronger when they moves to the west of the Sun, then when they turns to the western limb and back of the Sun or again crosses the solar disk, will produce more large proton flares.

本文研究结果表明:同一黑子群在日面期间的顺或反时针方向的旋转运动会先后并存.质子耀斑前1~2无,黑子群的旋转角速度达到极大.耀斑后,磁绳的松弛,黑子群可能会反向旋转,强的剪切过程和质子耀斑可能会再度出现.强质子耀斑活动区的共同特征是:(1)形态为单个团状结构δ型黑子,即众多异极性本影核紧锁在同一黑子半影中;(2)黑子面积>1000×10-6半球面积,日面跨度>10°;(3)黑子群都有快速的旋转运动.这类活动区,如果在日面西部活动性明显地增强,那么这个活动区在未来转到日面边缘及其背后、或再次从日面东边缘转出时,定能再次爆发耀斑和伴随较强质子事件。

 
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