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  inundated forest
Seasonality of rainfall and river level significantly affect the abundance of primates in seasonally inundated forest but not in upland forest types.
      
Since the inundated forest has a typical biota, conservation efforts needs to be directed to protect these habitats.
      
Of the black water species there were a large number of species which were captured only in inundated forest, such as Geophagus cf.
      
Seasonally inundated forest was compared with upland (tierra firme) forest.
      
The diversity and spatial distribution of vascular epiphytes were surveyed in two biotopes (dryland forest and swamp-inundated forest) of the semi-deciduous rain forest area in Cameroon.
      
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Disturbance,as a widespread natural phenomenon,is considered as a discrete event occurred in natural ecosystems at various spatial and temporal scales.The occurrence of disturbance directly influence the structure,function and dynamics of ecosystem.The following characteristics are considered as the common nature of disturbance:①Ecological impacts of disturbance is relative for different ecosystems;②The impacts of disturbance is changeable at different spatial scales;③Disturbance can regulate the ecological...

Disturbance,as a widespread natural phenomenon,is considered as a discrete event occurred in natural ecosystems at various spatial and temporal scales.The occurrence of disturbance directly influence the structure,function and dynamics of ecosystem.The following characteristics are considered as the common nature of disturbance:①Ecological impacts of disturbance is relative for different ecosystems;②The impacts of disturbance is changeable at different spatial scales;③Disturbance can regulate the ecological processes and functions of ecosystem;④Disturbance is always a disorder phenomenon for the normal ecosystem processes;⑤Disturbance is a widespread in various spatial scales and temporal scales.The most important result of disturbance is the change of ecosystem structures and regulation of resource patches in the landscape.Many results show that disturbance is sometimes helpful for increasing bio diversity and conservation.It is significant to study the nature,types,ecological effects,certain size disturbance and relationship with human activities.

干扰是自然界中无时无处不在的一种现象 ,是在不同时空尺度上偶然发生的不可预知的事件 ,直接影响着生态系统的结构和功能演替。根据不同分类原则 ,干扰可以分为自然干扰和人为干扰 ;内部干扰和外部干扰 ;物理干扰、化学干扰和生物干扰 ;局部干扰和跨边界干扰。常见的干扰类型包括火干扰、放牧、土壤物理干扰、土壤化学干扰、践踏、外来种入侵、洪水泛滥、森林采伐、矿山开发、道路建设和旅游等。干扰主要具有以下一些特点 :1多重性 ;2生态影响的相对性 ;3明显的尺度性 ;4是对生态演替过程的再调节 ;5是自然生态系统中不协调的现象 ;6时空尺度的广泛性。干扰的一个突出作用是导致生态系统中各类资源的改变和生态系统结构的重组。干扰的生态环境影响有利有弊 ,不仅取决于干扰本身性质 ,还取决于干扰作用的客体。适度的干扰可以促进生物多样性和生物资源的保护。因此研究干扰的性质、生态效应、有利的适度规模以及与人类活动的关系具有重要意义

 
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