With a 380kV and 18kA electron beam, a peak value power of 1GW,1.52GHz output microwave is generated by simulation. As the electron beam is strongly nonlinearly modulated by the microwave in the cavity, the output microwave has harmonic components of different frequency.

With a 380kV and 18kA electron beam, a peak value power of 1GW,1.52GHz output microwave is generated by simulation. As the electron beam is strongly nonlinearly modulated by the microwave in the cavity, the output microwave has harmonic components of different frequency.

The experimental result shows that when two kinds of point defects are introduced into the sample, the ratio of the maximum power of samples with point defects to that without defects are 1.035 and 1.256, and the absolute value of the negative refraction index increases by 9.6% and 19.6%, respectively.

The difference between the maximum radiation power of X and Y polarization light is 1.8% for a TFBG with tilted angle of 3°,difference increases to 16% while the tilted angle increases to 15° but below 5% for the tilted angle smaller than 7°.

When three kinds of vacant defects are introduced into the sample, the ratios of the maximum power of samples with vacant defects to that without defects have the highest value of 1.973 and the lowest value of 0.364, and the absolute values of the negative refraction index have increased by 68.33% and 9.6% accordingly.

Artificial substrates were used to monitor the invertebrate communities below a power peaking impoundment and a flow re-regulating impoundment on the Missouri River on northeastern Nebraska, USA.

A loading pattern with minimum feed enrichment, maximum burn-up and power peaking factor under given constraint was sought.

As the enrichment split is increased, the BOEC power peaking factor increases because the power peak is located in the outer core.

Consequently, maximum burnup becomes limited by power peaking factors, rather than by radiation damage to cladding and fuel.

Design options to enhance the flux and power peaking performance of the sodium cooled ATW blanket were also investigated.

This includes all stimuli with a power peak at a frequency of n·f+δf, n=l,2,3,t (Fig.

The dominant period of oscillation is 300 s, with little evidence of the power peak in the range 150-200 s which has been observed in other chromospheric lines.

In case the global oscillations are torsional MHD, the significance of their parity and power peak is pointed out.

In ～40% of instances clear periods are observable in the 2-5 mHz range with the largest power peak at 3.0 mHz.

In all regions, the 5.0 mHz power peak is smaller.

In this paper,the widening rule of the deformation layer has been studied duringfriction welding of a 0.45% carbon steel.When friction is first started,a primitivedeformation layer is formed on the friction local interface at a distance of (1/2～1/3)r(radius of the rod) from the center cf the welding cross section.A circular hotring consists of metallic interface of deformation layer and mechanical draging.Asfriction is continued,a circular hot ring widens toward both perimeter and center ofthe welding cross...

In this paper,the widening rule of the deformation layer has been studied duringfriction welding of a 0.45% carbon steel.When friction is first started,a primitivedeformation layer is formed on the friction local interface at a distance of (1/2～1/3)r(radius of the rod) from the center cf the welding cross section.A circular hotring consists of metallic interface of deformation layer and mechanical draging.Asfriction is continued,a circular hot ring widens toward both perimeter and center ofthe welding cross section.High temperature area is widened provided only all friction-al interface has been heated up.A peak power or peak torque is often attainedwhen the heated frictional interface area is increased up to 60—70% of the weldingcross section.As all frictional interface has been heated,frictional torque reaches toa constant value.The location,area,thickness,widening direction and wideningvelocity of the circular hot ring are depended on the parameter of the friction weld-ing.When the peak torque is occured,temperature at the circular hot ring reachesabout 700℃.Once the torque value has kept constant,then the temperature at thefriction interface may reach 1000℃ or more.

This paper reports improvement of capacitordumped nitrogen laser developed by us. Pulse energy, average power, peak power, beam quality and reliability have been increased. Output energy of 11.5 mJ at 1Hz or 6.7mJ at 20Hz, reliability of ±5.5% , pulse length of 4.5ns, peak power of 1.5MW and average power of 122 mW have been obtained.

A practical method for simulation of fuel management optimization of pressurized water reactor (PWR) core with two-dimensional model is described. The general objective of the optimization is to choose a set of refuelling arrangement schemes, which wilJ Produce the maximum economic profit on condition that it meets the safety criteria of PWR It often requires quite a lot of computer time to simulate the optimized schemes. A effective and acceptable optimization strategy, two-step search method, then has been...

A practical method for simulation of fuel management optimization of pressurized water reactor (PWR) core with two-dimensional model is described. The general objective of the optimization is to choose a set of refuelling arrangement schemes, which wilJ Produce the maximum economic profit on condition that it meets the safety criteria of PWR It often requires quite a lot of computer time to simulate the optimized schemes. A effective and acceptable optimization strategy, two-step search method, then has been developed. The first step of algorithm consisis of several approaches based on the informations available and the pasi experiences with refuelling. The second step allows a further improvement of the previously determined optimum schemes. The maximum radial power peaking factor, W,, is defined as the objective function. Several physical criteria are examined to propose the constraints. The main intention is to minimize Wf, the objective function, subjected to various constraints. Hence a cmputer program 2DFEOF, in FORTRAN 77, has been developed.Some calculations were done for a typical PWR core on an IBM-4341 computer, The satisfactory results were obtained at reasonable low computational costs.It spent nearly 9 mins CPU time for 3 fuel cycles with a 1/8 core configuration.