And the order of parameters affecting stabilization timeis ultrasound intensity > emulsifier dosage > alcohol dosage > water dosage > ultrasonic treatment time > stabilizing agent dosage. The optimum emulsifying conditions for the system are: ultrasound intensity 0.148 W/cm2, emulsifiers dosage 2.5wt%, stabilizing agent dosage 0.158wt%, treatment time of ultrasound 15 min, ethanol dosage 5%(V), water-oil ratio 10%(V).
In the mixed emulsifiers for the O/W drilling fluid(O/WDF) presented,the nonionic emulsifier(NIE) is chosen preliminarily by PIT method and finally by HLB method with O/W emulsion viscosity taken as characteristic parameter and the anionic emulsifier(AIE)—by HLB method,too.
The O/WDF is prepared with diesel/crude oil mixture of volume ratio 70/30 as oil phase at oil to water phase volume ratios 40/60—60/40 and at dosage of mixed emulsifiers 4—7% of the total oil+water volume. The main additives used are a gelling agent instead of bentonite,a high temperature liquid inhibitor,an oil soluble reservoir protector,and a filtrate loss reducer.
With vegetable seed oil, Span-60 and Tween-60 as reagent, we can determine the HLB Value of JY - 2 and JY - 3 Type Positive Irons Asphalt Emulsifier to be 10.13 and 12.11 respectively by experiments of emulsion with thetrial and error method under permanent waterbathing temperature of 35 C.
A W/O microemulsion was prepared with Span80-PS (petroleum sulfonate) as complex emulsifier, isopropanol as cosurfactant and kerosene as oil phase.
Based on discussions on the nucleation mechanism of particles in the polymerization system, the influences of monomer weight added dropwise, and amounts of initiator and emulsifier on the size and distribution of PS particles were investigated.
PS nanoparticles with smaller diameter such as a number-average diameter of 18.7 nm and better monodispersity were obtained since the dropped styrene amount was suitable under 20wt-% emulsifier amount and 3wt-% initiator amount based on the monomer.
The shape-stabilized phase change materials (PCMs) composed of paraffin wax and silica were prepared in O/W emulsion with cetyl trimethylamine bromide as emulsifier and n-pentanol as assist emulsifier.
Decontaminating solutions that are used in the laboratory practice for the detoxication of hydrophilic process ME solutions are aqueous solutions of alkali hydroxide with additions of hydrogen peroxide and an emulsifier.
The kinetic parameters of radical copolymerization of butyl methacrylate and zinc-containing monomer were studied as influenced by the structure and concentration of various emulsifiers such as oxyalkylated alcohols and alkylphenols.
Calorimetric study of polyvinyl alcohols used as emulsifiers in suspension polymerization of vinyl chloride
The heat effects of dissolution of two pairs of polyvinyl alcohols used as emulsifiers in suspension polymerization of vinyl chloride and the optical transmission of their stirred aqueous solutions as a function of time were determined.
It is found that many factors such as emulsifiers, initiators, reaction temperature, pH value and polymerization technology have influences on the permormance of styrene-acrylate latex.
Microencapsulation of PANI with low pH as the core material was prepared by in situ polymerization of melamine-formaldehyde resins, as the shell material acts as an insulator between PANI particles, using two different emulsifiers.
Polymer beads with a diameter of 60-70 nm and specific functional groups were synthesized by a particular seeded emulsion polymerization technique.
Effects of relative content of HTPB and PPG on emulsion stability, resistance to water and ethanol, thermal stability, compatibility of soft and hard segment, as well as the mechanical property of the cured film were investigated.
Then, the cross-linked magnetic compsoite microspheres containing a carboxyl group were prepared by using an improved emulsion polymerization with divinylbenzene (DVB) as the cross-linking agent.
The results show that the composite microspheres were well dispersed in emulsion with uniform sizes and carboxyl groups on their surface.
Poly(vinyl chloride) composite emulsion resins modified by polyurethane
A new emulsifier of nou-ionic type surfactant, its laboratory preparation and field application are presented. Refinery by-product naphthenic acid reacts with diethanolamine to form salt, which is in turn dehydrated to form amide. Inverted emulsion drilling mud treated with this product and other conventional emulsifier is stable at high temperature above 150掳C and yields good suspension. Field test on 3 wells in Zhongyuan Oil Field gave good results.
The use of surfactant as drilling fluid, stimulation fluid, production, injec- tion and enhanced oil recovery chemicals is reviewed. The growing need of sur- factants for purposes other than as emulsifiers, demulsifiers, lubricants and foam agents is predicted, though many technical and economic problems remain to be solved.
An oil-in-water emulsifier has been prepared in laboratory. It is made from kerosene or diesel fraction of Shengli or Daqing crude oil by oxidation. This agent can be used to reduce the viscosity of heavy viscous crude oil in transportation. With ratio of water to oil being 30:70, the viscosity can be reduced from 8482.7×10-3Pa.s(50℃) to about 0.1 Pa.s(35℃) by use of an additive concentration of 0.5-1.0% (based on water). This agent may be a good emulsifier with abundant raw material, lower price and simple...
An oil-in-water emulsifier has been prepared in laboratory. It is made from kerosene or diesel fraction of Shengli or Daqing crude oil by oxidation. This agent can be used to reduce the viscosity of heavy viscous crude oil in transportation. With ratio of water to oil being 30:70, the viscosity can be reduced from 8482.7×10-3Pa.s(50℃) to about 0.1 Pa.s(35℃) by use of an additive concentration of 0.5-1.0% (based on water). This agent may be a good emulsifier with abundant raw material, lower price and simple process.