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流体的处理
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An important astrophysical consequent of the experiments regarding a nonzero rest mass of neutrinos is the possible existence of self-gravitating systems of neutrinos. The masses of stable equilibrium configurations of such systems are of the order of the mass of clusters of galaxies. On the other hand, in the standard model of big bang cosmology the mass density in the universe is dominated by neutrinos if it has a nonzero mass, say, mv - 14-46 ev. Hence it might be expected that the clustering of matter in...

An important astrophysical consequent of the experiments regarding a nonzero rest mass of neutrinos is the possible existence of self-gravitating systems of neutrinos. The masses of stable equilibrium configurations of such systems are of the order of the mass of clusters of galaxies. On the other hand, in the standard model of big bang cosmology the mass density in the universe is dominated by neutrinos if it has a nonzero mass, say, mv - 14-46 ev. Hence it might be expected that the clustering of matter in the early universe should be affected substantially by such neutrinos.The clustering of pure neutrinos content in expanding universe has been investigated in several works, but in which the clustering of cosmological matter has not been involved yet, Since the results of direct measures on galaxies or on clusters of galaxies, for example, the mass, the size and the velocity dispersion are always the properties of matter components themselves, it is necessary to analyse the interaction between the clustering processes of the neutrinos and the matter,1, In the case of mv=0 the clustering theory of the Jeans instability stage in the early universe can be summarized in the Figs 1 and 2.Fig 1 show the Jeans wave length λm of ionized hydrogen plus blackbody radiation as a function of cosmological radiation temperature Tr. The corresponding time of the drop in the Jeans, length is the hydrogen recombination at Tr - 4000 K. Before the recombination both ionized hydrogen and radiation are in thermal equilibrium by collisions with each, other, after the recombination the matter decoupled from radiation. Dashed line Mm in Fig 2 shows the Jeans mass as a function of radiation temperature. A drop in the time of recombination occures as well. The dashed line Mhor in Fig. 2 gives the mass contained within the horizon of the cosmological model.The mass range of the Jeans instability is given by Mm < M < Mhor. Then it can be obtained from the Fig. 2 that no preferential clustering size exists in this model, i.e. all systems with mass from about 106 to 1017 M⊙ are unstable against the Jeans mechanism in the early universe and all unstable developments start from the time of recombination. That is often considered as a shortage of the theory of early clustering in the big bang model. In this work we have shown that if neutrinos have a nonzero rest mass the conclusions mentioned above should become to advantage the big bang theory.2, As the age of the universe was longer than td or the temperature dropped below Td-1.3×1011 K, the neutrinos and antineutrinos decoupled from the other particles so that we might adopt the two-components perfect-fluid to represent the contents of the universe, one of the components is the neutrinos and the other is the matter and the radiation.For the component of matter and radiation, the thermodynamieal properties are still described by the results given in section 1. The component of neutrinos is a col-lisionless self-gravitating gas, for which the distribution function N(t, xi pi) satisfies the Vlasov equation. In the Eobertson-Walker metric, using the distribution in the time td as the initial condition, the solution of the Vlasov equation can be found as follows:where B(t) is the cosmic scale factor in the R-W metric and Rd =R(td).All thermodynamieal properties of the neutrinos systems can be obtained from the distribution (1). For instance, in the nonrelativistic case the effective temperature Teff of neutrinos arewhere mv is in the unit of ev. In the same way we can derived the Jeans wave length of the neutrino system (see Fig. 1).3, The two-components in the early universe interact with each other through gravitational force. When we want to examine the Jeans instability, the two components system should be treated as a whole. Strictly speaking, we must deal with this problem in the relastivistic and expansive cosmological model. We can, however, safely employ classical and non-expansive model if our interests cover only the Jeans length and mass, but not the growing rate of small fluctuations. N

本文讨论有静质量中微子对宇宙早期的Jeans不稳定性阶段的成团过程的影响。把早期宇宙作为两成分流体处理,一种成分是退耦后的中微子,另一种成分是物质及辐射,二者之间仅通过引力相耦合。主要的结论是:(1)有静质量中微子将引起复合时期之前的物质成团过程;(2)这种先复合期的物质成团的质量主要处于星系团的范围;(3)存在优先的成团尺度,它的Jeans不稳定的起始时间最早;(4)如果中微子静质量太小,则对早期的物质成团过程无影响。

Oxygen transfer in a flat pJate membrane oxygenator is being studied. A mathematical model for the Cassonian fluid (or Newtonian fluid)convec-tive mass transfer with reversible instantaneous oxygenation is presented. Finite-difference technigue is used to solve the nonlinear boundary-value problem concerned. Calculations indicate that not much difference can be realized between Cassonian and Newtonian fluids. For Newtonian fluids, calculated values of physical absorption conform very well with data given in...

Oxygen transfer in a flat pJate membrane oxygenator is being studied. A mathematical model for the Cassonian fluid (or Newtonian fluid)convec-tive mass transfer with reversible instantaneous oxygenation is presented. Finite-difference technigue is used to solve the nonlinear boundary-value problem concerned. Calculations indicate that not much difference can be realized between Cassonian and Newtonian fluids. For Newtonian fluids, calculated values of physical absorption conform very well with data given in literature.

本文对平板膜式氧合器中的传递过程进行了研究,提出了伴有瞬间可逆氧合反应时卡森流体的对流传质模型,并用有限差分方法获得了模型的数值解.当将卡森流体简化为牛顿流体时,其物理吸收的计算结果与文献值完全一致.本文采用猪血进行了氧合实验.实验数据与理论计算的结果相吻合.当血液按牛顿流体和卡森流体处理时,发现两者的计算结果相差甚微,因而认为,在氧合器的研制中可将血液作为牛顿流体处理.

In this paper an analytical solution is presented for solitary waves propagating over fluid-mud seabed. In the theoretical analysis three boundary layers are introduced to satisfy the boundary conditions of motion. The first order approximation are derived for the velocities in the irrota-tional cores and boundary layers, as well as the dissipation rates of wave heights. The laboratory experiment results are compared favourably with the theoretical prediction.

本文将海底浮泥作为粘性流体处理,利用分层流体模型,首次研究了浅水孤立波在浮泥海床上的衰减。在分层流体模型中引入了三个边界层,理论推导分析得出了边界层内外的流速分布;由边界层内粘滞能量损失推求出波高沿程衰减系数。为证明本文理论,采用天津新港浮泥进行了水槽实验,实测波高沿程衰减与理论预测值符合良好。

 
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