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     A Discussion on Xu Zhengmin's Thought Concerning Water Conservancy Construction and Land Reclamation in Northwest China
     徐贞明西北兴修水利和垦荒思想初探
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     On the changes brought by the railways built in Shijiazhuang by the end of Qing Dynasty
     清末石家庄兴修铁路前后的变化
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     The increase of water use efficiency was mainly caused by the establishment of water conservancy facilities, soil improvement, extension of new crop varieties and continuously increasing application rates of N, P fertilizers.
     兴修水利、土壤改良、新品种的推广 ,尤其是N、P化肥用量的增加 ,对水分利用效率的增加起了决定性的作用。
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     In this process, the emigration and land-exploitation, developing water conservancy, growth and decay of agriculture-herd industry, population migration and assembling, changes of geopolitics and natural environment are the main driving force of urban development and growth.
     在这一变化过程中,移民屯垦、兴修水利、农牧业的消长与进退、人口迁移与聚集、地缘政治和自然环境的变化是城镇发育与成长的主要驱动力.
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     The natural condition are closely related to the floods in an area that is premise and foundation for building water conservancy projects too.
     一地区的自然条件与水患的状况密切相关,也是兴修水利的前提和基础。
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     (2)building irrigation works and perfecting infrastructure;
     兴修水利工程,完善基础设施;
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     On the changes brought by the railways built in Shijiazhuang by the end of Qing Dynasty
     清末石家庄兴修铁路前后的变化
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  start construction
Our goal is to start construction of two new science buildings in 2003.
      
Parsons swings the pickax to start construction on the subway at Bleecker and Greene Streets.
      
These include schemes currently under construction and those expected to start construction, and are listed in annex A to this letter.
      
The company intends to conduct further design studies and to obtain funding in late 2000, and to start construction thereafter.
      


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目前我国正在兴修大量混凝土闸坝与水电站等水利工程,其中有许多将修筑在砂土地基上,根据我们所了解的文献与资料对设计而言迄今尚无简单适用且比较合理的计算砂基稳定的方法,因此我们对混凝土闸坝砂基在渗透水动压力作用下的稳定性进行了研究工作.本文内容包括下列几点:1.总结国内外有关混凝土闸坝砂基在渗透水作用下的稳定模型试验资料,分析混凝土闸坝砂基发生破坏情况与外界荷重的关系.2.根据试验资料提出计算混凝土闸坝在水库运转情况下的砂基上垂直荷重与水平荷重的极限强度与校核砂基稳定的经验公式.3.提出具体计算实例,用我们建议的计算公式对水工建筑物砂基稳定进行了校核计算(计算中全面考虑了各种影响地基强度与稳定的重要因素,运算方法极其简单而且方便).应该指出的是我们的研究工作还不够深入与细致,今后尚待进一步进行试验研究与理论分析,现提出此文供有关的设计与研究人员参考.

Based on the results of electrical analog tests, this paper analyses the horizontal ditch drainage for the layered soil with surface ponded water percolated and a less pervious layer underneath. The influence of the depth, thickness and the permeability of the impervious layer on the drainage discharge has been studied. The drainage discharge of the ditch in homogeneous soil varies directly with the depth of the ditch. The relationship between the drainage discharge for layered soil and the depth of the ditch...

Based on the results of electrical analog tests, this paper analyses the horizontal ditch drainage for the layered soil with surface ponded water percolated and a less pervious layer underneath. The influence of the depth, thickness and the permeability of the impervious layer on the drainage discharge has been studied. The drainage discharge of the ditch in homogeneous soil varies directly with the depth of the ditch. The relationship between the drainage discharge for layered soil and the depth of the ditch is shown in Fig. 2. For the case of depth of impervious layer greater than twice the depth of ditch, the effect of the former is not obvious. Fig. 5 shows the effect of the relative permeability (k_1/k_2) of the impervious layer on the drainage discharge. The effect of the thickness of the impervious layer has the same characteristic as shown in Fig. 7.

本文主要是利用电模拟法探讨了地面积水入渗、地下水位上升至地表、地面以下有一个弱透水隔层的层状土的水平排水,并着重讨论了隔层深度、厚度及透水性对排水效果的影响,得出隔层位置对排水流量的变化超重要作用的结论.可供有隔层地区兴修排水工程及对该问题作进一步研究时参考.

This paper first deals with the sunshine. insolation and temperature of Hainan Island, then discusses its monsoon wind circulation and precipitation. According to the above discussion the climate of Hainan Island can be classified into "monsoon tropics type".

海南岛的气候特征是:光照强,昼长变化小,太阳辐射热能丰富,长夏无冬春秋短,活动积温高。风向的季节变化明显,季风指数大,属于典型的热带季风气候。由于季风的更迭,天气系统亦有明显的季变,除主要受热带天气系统控制(台风、热带气流辐合带、东风波等)外,在冬季风盛行季节亦受温带南下冷空气系统(冷高压脊、弱冷锋、静止锋等)的影响,再加上地形的怍用,致使海南岛的年雨虽甚丰沛,但其时空分布的地区性差异却很突出:中部山地和东部沿海迎风坡地年雨量最多,雨季亦最长(5月~11月),北部沿海次之,南部沿海再次之,而以西部沿海背风面年雨最少,一年中8有个月是干季只有4个月是雨季(6~9月)。对海南岛有利的气候条件应加以合理地利用,对其不利的气候条件宜通过大规模地兴修水利和营造防护林带等措施来加以改造。扬长避短,因地制宜,把海南岛逐步建成热带经济作物、珍贵林木和育种基地,并使之成为利用太阳能的“宝岛”,为加速我国四化,作出更大的贡献。

 
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