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行星科学
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     Planet
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     The Science of Persuasion
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     Planetary geodynamics is a science in exploring planet'S formation and its evolution mechanism.
     行星地球动力学是研究行星的形成及其演化机制的科学
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     Search for Extrasolar Planets
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Impact cratering - fundamental process in geoscience and planetary science
      
Eugene Shoemaker and the Impact Paradigm in Earth and Planetary Science
      
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In this paper, the recent achivements of shock wave physics applied to Earth and Planetary Sciences are reviewed, including the state and composition of Earth interior, the compositional models of major planets, and the processes of impacting, createring and accreting in the solar system. With the development of shock compression methods for obtaining pressure density Hugoniot curve, it become clear that these can be applied to both determining the equation of state and investigating polymorphic phase changes...

In this paper, the recent achivements of shock wave physics applied to Earth and Planetary Sciences are reviewed, including the state and composition of Earth interior, the compositional models of major planets, and the processes of impacting, createring and accreting in the solar system. With the development of shock compression methods for obtaining pressure density Hugoniot curve, it become clear that these can be applied to both determining the equation of state and investigating polymorphic phase changes in silicate minerals of planetary mantles and crusts, as well as the iron alloys of the metallic cores of terrestrial planets. These data, when taken with seismological models of the Earth, yield constraints on the composition of the Earth's mantle and core. Whereas, the data above and other similar data for low temperature condensable gases (H 2, He) and ices (H 2O, CH 4, CO 2, NH 3), combined with solar elements abundance and Jeffrey's number data, have been used to construct compositional models of the major planets (e.g., Jupiter and Saturm). Shock temperature measurements of the possible minerals in the Earth interior could be applied to investigate their melting behaviors , with which a phase diagram at high pressures could be constructed , and could provide a constraint to the quasi-static creep rheology of the mantle that controls convection. Shock compression of molten silicates at upper mantle pressures provides a constraint on the depths in the mantle from which molten lava can reach the surface as a result of its buoyancy relative to the surrounding solid. Application of shock wave data is critical to describe the energy partitioning upon hypervelocity impact on planetary surface, and permits caculation of the melt and vapor produced by impactors as a function of impact velocity, as well as provides a quantitative basis for determining the degree of erosion or accretion upon planetary impact as a function of impact and planetary escape velocity. On the other hand, shock induced devolatization during the impact processes is also addressable using shock wave and other thermodynamic data, and can be used to depict the formation of Earth's primitive atomsphere. Furthermore, giant impacts upon the Earth surface could release plenty of gases, such as CO 2 and SO 2 into the atmosphere that strongly affect the global climate, which appears to have played a major role in the evolution and extinction of species during the Earth's history.

概要介绍了冲击波物理应用于地球和行星科学研究中所取得的一些最新成果。主要涉及地球深部物质的组成、性质和状态,行星的组成模型,以及太阳系中的碰撞成坑和吸积相互作用等领域。着重论述了冲击波物理在这些领域的研究中所发挥的作用。并展望了冲击波动高压技术在地球深部物质科学等地学领域的研究中广阔的应用前景。

The IAU Colloquium No.168 “Cometary Nuclei in Space and Time” was just closed in Nanjing. 78 participants came from 16 countries or local areas. Among them many are active on the front of every fields in cometary physics, Many important achievements, and future space investigation plans were published in this meeting, especially, including the newly research fruit about Comet Hale-Bopp. It is expected that, the most important development in cometary physics will come from space study. Human will obtain the...

The IAU Colloquium No.168 “Cometary Nuclei in Space and Time” was just closed in Nanjing. 78 participants came from 16 countries or local areas. Among them many are active on the front of every fields in cometary physics, Many important achievements, and future space investigation plans were published in this meeting, especially, including the newly research fruit about Comet Hale-Bopp. It is expected that, the most important development in cometary physics will come from space study. Human will obtain the material of a rue comet and analyze it in the laboratory. It will help us to understand many physical processes which happened in comets and their environments, help us to understand the origins and relationship of the three main cometary reservoirs: Oort cloud, Kuiper belt and scattered comet disk. How Chinese astronomers take a part in the research work in the world is also discussed in this paper.

在南京召开的国际天文学联合会第168 次学术讨论会《空间和时间中的彗核》反映了当前国际彗星领域取得的重大成果、研究倾向以及未来发展趋势。彗星物理各个领域的很多重要的成果, 包括对海尔- 波普彗星的最新研究成果、未来空间彗星探索计划等, 都在此次会议上发表。可以说, 未来的一、二十年中, 彗星物理的最重要的发展将在于空间研究。人类将可直接取得彗星样品在实验室内进行分析和实验。它必将有助于弄清发生在彗星内部及其环境中的很多物理过程, 有助于了解三个主要的彗星库———奥尔特云、柯伊伯带和弥漫彗星盘———的起源和它们之间的关系。面对飞速发展的行星科学, 我国的天文工作者应有所作为。

A lot of geodetic research work has been carried out recently in the field of coordinate system and its frame,i,e.ITRF,WGS84,GRS80and so on.The movement of Earth mass center,update of geodetic fundamental constant,and the appearance of newest ITRF2000and WGS84(1150)are intro-duced in the paper.The new technology of satellite-satellite tracking(SST)has been developed for the determination of Earth gravity field and its time-variation.Now geodesy becomes an interdisciplinary geodetic science,and it...

A lot of geodetic research work has been carried out recently in the field of coordinate system and its frame,i,e.ITRF,WGS84,GRS80and so on.The movement of Earth mass center,update of geodetic fundamental constant,and the appearance of newest ITRF2000and WGS84(1150)are intro-duced in the paper.The new technology of satellite-satellite tracking(SST)has been developed for the determination of Earth gravity field and its time-variation.Now geodesy becomes an interdisciplinary geodetic science,and it can provide and process the information necessary for other geosciences,such as geodynamics,planetology,atmospheric sciences,oceanography,tectonic movement and glaciology and so on.As a matter of fact geodesy becomes an interdisciplinary geo-science,and it will give more influ-ence and promotion on the other geo-sciences,planet sciences,and environment sciences.

近几年来大地测量在坐标系统和坐标框架如ITRF,WGS84,GRS80等方面进行了很多研究和改善,本文介绍了坐标原点地心的移动,大地测量基本常数的更新,直至最新的ITRF2000和WGS84(1150)的推出。在求定重力场方面发展了卫星跟踪卫星(SST)测定地球重力场及其变化的新技术。这些使大地测量学提供和处理了涉及原来是地球动力学,行星学,大气学,海洋学、板块运动学和冰川学等学科所需的信息。事实上证明大地测量学业已形成为学科交叉意义上一门科学,它将更大的影响和促进地球科学,环境科学和行星科学的发展。

 
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