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  feeding situation
In addition, we collected faeces of all individuals within this family for three hours from the beginning of the feeding situation for determining excreted corticosterone immuno-reactive metabolites by enzyme immuno assay.
      
It has been shown that in all monkeys, under conditions of competitive feeding situation, there were changes of the complex behavioral forms observed at individual learning.
      
We tested this assumption in a flock feeding situation by manipulating the proportion of scroungers in flocks of spice finches, Lonchura punctulata.
      
During nursing, mammalian young also encounter a very different feeding situation to bird siblings.
      
To create a novel feeding situation, we offered common ravens (Corvus corax) equal numbers of either small (40?g) or large (160?g) pieces of meat on successive days, always in combination with the same novel object.
      
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  feeding situation
In addition, we collected faeces of all individuals within this family for three hours from the beginning of the feeding situation for determining excreted corticosterone immuno-reactive metabolites by enzyme immuno assay.
      
It has been shown that in all monkeys, under conditions of competitive feeding situation, there were changes of the complex behavioral forms observed at individual learning.
      
We tested this assumption in a flock feeding situation by manipulating the proportion of scroungers in flocks of spice finches, Lonchura punctulata.
      
During nursing, mammalian young also encounter a very different feeding situation to bird siblings.
      
To create a novel feeding situation, we offered common ravens (Corvus corax) equal numbers of either small (40?g) or large (160?g) pieces of meat on successive days, always in combination with the same novel object.
      
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  feeding status
Average peak concentrations in serum of 11 to 14 μg/ml and of 7 to 10 μg/ml after 15- and 10-mg/kg doses, respectively, were not substantially affected by the feeding status.
      
In order to study the role of feeding status on the growth and reproduction of Eisenia fetida, pre-clitellate specimens were kept for 180 days under controlled conditions.
      
This impact on the P cycle in savannas seems to be related to the termite feeding status and to the type of material utilised in nest building.
      
These findings demonstrate that satellite cells express different behavior depending on feeding status, which could be due to the presence of different satellite cell populations.
      
We examined the distribution of MCH-like immunoreactivity (MCH-LI) in the goldfish brain and the effect of feeding status upon this distribution.
      
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  feeding situation
In addition, we collected faeces of all individuals within this family for three hours from the beginning of the feeding situation for determining excreted corticosterone immuno-reactive metabolites by enzyme immuno assay.
      
It has been shown that in all monkeys, under conditions of competitive feeding situation, there were changes of the complex behavioral forms observed at individual learning.
      
We tested this assumption in a flock feeding situation by manipulating the proportion of scroungers in flocks of spice finches, Lonchura punctulata.
      
During nursing, mammalian young also encounter a very different feeding situation to bird siblings.
      
To create a novel feeding situation, we offered common ravens (Corvus corax) equal numbers of either small (40?g) or large (160?g) pieces of meat on successive days, always in combination with the same novel object.
      
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  其他


143 premature and low birth weight infants were admitted from March 1994 to May 1995. 123 cases survived. The infant's mean gestational age was (34. 6±2. 5) weeks and mean birth weight was (2 008±455)g. 69. 9% infants started feeding within 24 hours after birth. IV fluid was provided to complement the needs of daily intake,its duration was 6 days(2-33days). Data were analysed by logical regression methods. The results showed that the following conditions indicated the infant's feeding intolerance including:body...

143 premature and low birth weight infants were admitted from March 1994 to May 1995. 123 cases survived. The infant's mean gestational age was (34. 6±2. 5) weeks and mean birth weight was (2 008±455)g. 69. 9% infants started feeding within 24 hours after birth. IV fluid was provided to complement the needs of daily intake,its duration was 6 days(2-33days). Data were analysed by logical regression methods. The results showed that the following conditions indicated the infant's feeding intolerance including:body temperature below 35C>2 days,complement IV fluid >7 days, residual milk by tube feeding beyond normal amount and oxygen need > 3 days. Infant's physiological weight loss was 7%-10. 5% from birth weight,continuing weight loss lasted (6. 24±2. 1) daysj92. 6% survivors had weight regained at 7 days and 80% cass reached their birth weight before discharge. The age of regaining birth weight was (10. 6±2. 4) days and (8. 9 ± 2. 1) days in ≤34 weeks and ≥35 weeks infants respectively. The amount of weight increased was 14. 4±8. 3g/(kg · d) in 32 weeks of life and 12. 4±6. 2g/(kg · d) in 33-34 weeks of life. Twenty cases died (20/143),mortality rate was higher (45%-50%) in ≤32 weeks infants and lower(4%-8%) in ≥33 weeks infants.

1994年3月至1995年5月收住早产及低体重儿143例,有并发症者87例,成活123例。观察早期喂养状况与预后。生后24小时内开始喂养的占69.9%,入量不足以静脉液体补充。本组静脉补液平均6天(2~33天)。资料经逻辑回归分析发现:体温低于35℃>2天,静脉补液或应用抗生素>7天,鼻饲奶残余量超常或吸氧时间>3天等与喂养耐受不良关系密切。本组生理体重下降为出生体重的7%~10.5%,持续体重下降日龄为6.24±2.1。成活儿的92.6%于生后7天体重回升,至出院前80%婴儿恢复出生体重。恢复出生体重日龄≤34周者为10.6±2.40,≥35周者为8.9±2.1。每日公斤体重增长量≤32周者为14.4±8.3g,33~34周者为12.4±6.2g。本组死亡20例,其中≤32周的病死率最高为45%~50%,小于胎龄儿偏高,≥33周病死率为4%~8%。

Rural preschool children′s feeding pattern of 101 poor sites in 27 provinces were analyzed from 1990 to 1993. The breast fed rate reduced from 61.9% to 54 1%. The bottle fed rate rose from 5.7% to 13.5%. The number of children starting breast fed on the delivery day increased by 12.7 per cent. The weaning time of breast and mixed fed was 5 months and 1 month earlier, respectively. The number of children adding 7 kinds of weaning food increased by 10~38 per cent. The underweight and stunting prevalence of breast...

Rural preschool children′s feeding pattern of 101 poor sites in 27 provinces were analyzed from 1990 to 1993. The breast fed rate reduced from 61.9% to 54 1%. The bottle fed rate rose from 5.7% to 13.5%. The number of children starting breast fed on the delivery day increased by 12.7 per cent. The weaning time of breast and mixed fed was 5 months and 1 month earlier, respectively. The number of children adding 7 kinds of weaning food increased by 10~38 per cent. The underweight and stunting prevalence of breast fed children was lower than those of mixed and bottle fed ones. The prevalence of anemia among children not adding weaning food was significantly higher than those adding weaning food by 29 per cent.

对1990、1993两年儿童营养监测与改善项目中的全国27省101较贫困县儿童喂养状况进行了分析,母乳喂养率由61.9%降至54.1%,人工喂养率由5.7%升至13.5%,婴儿开奶时间提前,1993年婴儿出生当天开奶人数增加了12.7个百分点,母乳、混合喂养儿断奶时间分别提前5个月和1个月,六个月后七种(谷类、乳类、蛋类、鱼肉类、水果类、蔬菜类、豆类)辅食添加的人数1993年较1990年增加10~38个百分点,乳类辅食增加人数最多。母乳喂养儿营养不良患病率明显低于人工、混合喂养儿,未添加辅食的婴幼儿贫血率平均高于添加辅食组29个百分点。

An evaluation on breast feeding using the criteria recommended by WHO and UNICEF in Chinese rural area was carried out .The results indicated that the persentage of infants who were breast feeded under 2 years age was 47.5% in rural area of You county;single breat feeding rate of infants under 4 months age was 61.6%;superior breast feeding rate was 76.7%;timely adequate complemental food rate of 6~9 moths infants was 73.7%;bottle feeding rate of infants under 1 year age was 3.0%.The authors suggested that...

An evaluation on breast feeding using the criteria recommended by WHO and UNICEF in Chinese rural area was carried out .The results indicated that the persentage of infants who were breast feeded under 2 years age was 47.5% in rural area of You county;single breat feeding rate of infants under 4 months age was 61.6%;superior breast feeding rate was 76.7%;timely adequate complemental food rate of 6~9 moths infants was 73.7%;bottle feeding rate of infants under 1 year age was 3.0%.The authors suggested that the job of breat feeding should be promoted further and the breat feeding rate should be regarded as one of the criteria in the evaluating system.

本文采用世界卫生组识和联合国儿童基金会(WHO/UNICEF)最新推荐的指标来评价我国农村母乳喂养的状况。结果表明,攸县农村2岁以下婴幼儿母乳喂养率为47.5%;4个月以下的纯母乳喂养率为61.6%,优势母乳喂养率为767%;6~9个月婴幼儿及时合理添加辅食率为737%;1岁以下婴幼儿奶瓶喂养率为3.0%。建议母乳喂养工作应进一步加强,指标体系中应增加母乳喂养率。

 
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