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     (c) Deliver the social culture.
     (三)传递社会文化
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     Naming—A Window of Culture and Society
     从姓名看社会文化
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     Hospital culture is an important position in hospital.
     文化
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     Culture
     文化
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The personal beliefs of teachers represent the voices of social-cultural groups.
      
The evolution of the new social-cultural and even ethnic identity was a process whereby religious motifs generated cultural cohesion, and communal ties facilitated both.
      
New-class dissent among social-cultural specialists: The effects of occupational self-direction and location in the public secto
      
Recent research suggests that new-class dissent is concentrated among the "social-cultural specialists" Kristol identifies as the principal critics of a business culture.
      
Evidence exists that autobiographical memory performance as well as its underlying brain mechanisms are influenced by genetic, physiological, psychological, situational, and social-cultural factors.
      
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The multi-integrated system of forestry, such as a forest district or a tree farm, is a big system which consists of three subsystems, i.e. resource, industry and benefit ones. The development of multi-industries is the core of the system in a forest district or a tree farm. The applicable techniqu is the key to push the system forward. On the basis of multi-resources, a plan is drawn up; and in accordance with the plan, we import technique, investment, equipment and labour into the industrial subsystem to develop...

The multi-integrated system of forestry, such as a forest district or a tree farm, is a big system which consists of three subsystems, i.e. resource, industry and benefit ones. The development of multi-industries is the core of the system in a forest district or a tree farm. The applicable techniqu is the key to push the system forward. On the basis of multi-resources, a plan is drawn up; and in accordance with the plan, we import technique, investment, equipment and labour into the industrial subsystem to develop multi-industries, including the first, the second and the third ones; under the control of management. multi-benefits, comprising the economical, the ecological and the socio-cultural ones, are exported into society. The process of how the system works is shown in the following diagram. The Yinzhan Tree Farm, Qingyuan County, Guangzhou, is used as a practical example to expound how to utilize multi-resources completely, develop multi-industries vigorously and bring multi-benefits into full play effectively.

本文所提出的科技知识密集型林业产业系统,是一个高度综合的林业生态经济大系统,诸如一个林区或林场等,包括资源、产业和效益三个子系统。多种产业的开发是这个系统的核心,而适用技术(特别掌握这种技术的人才)是推动这个系统发展的关键。整个大系统的运动过程如下:在多种资源的基础上,拟订出林业发展的计划;按计划输入技术、投资、设备、劳力来进行多种产业的开发,包括第一、第二、第三产业的全面发展和互相配合;在经营活动的控制下,输出多种效益,包括经济的、生态的、社会文化的效益进入到社会系统中,以充分发挥森林和林业的全面效能,对人类社会作出较大的贡献。这是一条发展现代林业生产和山区治穷致富的途径。文中以广州市清远银盏林场为实例,说明如何在一个林场大系统中,全面利用多种资源,大力开发多种产业,充分发挥多种效益,就目前水平来说,它是一个比较先进的林场。

This paper outlines five major approaches to the study of translation: the literary appraoch, thelinguistic approach, the communicative approach and the translational or comprehensive approach. Thestudy of translation, it is argued, can be done from different viewpoints, each with its own emphasisand theoretical commitment. The first four approaches are examples of this. The fifth approach is asynthesis of the different approaches and also an attempt at establishing the study of translation as abetter paradigmed...

This paper outlines five major approaches to the study of translation: the literary appraoch, thelinguistic approach, the communicative approach and the translational or comprehensive approach. Thestudy of translation, it is argued, can be done from different viewpoints, each with its own emphasisand theoretical commitment. The first four approaches are examples of this. The fifth approach is asynthesis of the different approaches and also an attempt at establishing the study of translation as abetter paradigmed discipline.

本文讨论翻译研究的五种基本途径:1.文艺学途径;2.语言学途径;3.交际学途径;4.社会符号学途径;5.翻译学或综合性途径。作者认为,前四种途径运用不同的理论,从不同的角度对翻译进行文学、语言、符号系统、社会文化的研究,第五种途径不仅要综合各种不同的研究方法,而且要建立一门独立的研究翻译的学科。

In the late '50s and early '60s, the literature in Taiwan underwent a long period of westernization,By '70s,its trend returned to hometown and tradition,This forms a cycle.In the Mainland, the literature was promoted in the late '70s by the so-called hazy poems、which spelt a westernization trend later expanded by the tendency toward the stream of consciousness. whereas in 1983, a group of hazy poets loudly advocated the traditional spirit, which led to a drive for tracing the root in the friction circle. This...

In the late '50s and early '60s, the literature in Taiwan underwent a long period of westernization,By '70s,its trend returned to hometown and tradition,This forms a cycle.In the Mainland, the literature was promoted in the late '70s by the so-called hazy poems、which spelt a westernization trend later expanded by the tendency toward the stream of consciousness. whereas in 1983, a group of hazy poets loudly advocated the traditional spirit, which led to a drive for tracing the root in the friction circle. This seems again a cycle. A comparison between these two cycles to find out their identity and difference can not only discover the difference in history, culture and society, but also some deep-structure elements in the literary develop-ment.

台湾文学在五十年代后期、六十年代中曾发生过很长一段时期的文学“西化”,到七十年代,文学的走向又“回归乡土”,“回归传统”。大陆文学在七十年代末被所谓“朦胧诗”运动所推动,后来又为意识流运动所扩大的文学“西化”倾向,到了一九八三年,一批“朦胧诗人”高喊“传统精神”,小说界又是“寻根”热潮,似乎也绕了个圆圈。对比这两个“圆圈”,发现它们之间的共处、珠相,不但可以发现历史、社会、文化等的共相、差别,还能由此寻见文学发展的深层因素。

 
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