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正常高差
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  normal difference in height
     Using IG and dynamical adjustment theoy , practical model and fundemental equatio equations are established , and the observation equations of parameters such as gravity vector , zenith distance, azimuth angle, distance, normal difference in height and gravity potential difference are derived as well as the functions disturbed by time variant elements.
     利用整体大地测量和动态平差的理论,建立了实用模型,导出了重力向量、天顶距、方位角、距离、正常高差和重力位差的观测方程,解决了实用化的局部重力场协方差函数求定的问题。
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  相似匹配句对
     Results The rate corresponding to TMJDS diagnosis standard was 32.30% .
     结果:正常(?)
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     Normal Pregnancy
     正常妊娠
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     The Influence of Different Height Anomaly Datum on Normal Height Difference in GPS Height Transformation
     GPS高程转换中不同高程异常基准对正常高差的影响
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     15m~20m local relief;
     15m~20m局部高差;
     15 m~20 m local relief;
     15~20m局部高差;
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problems in Practical Integrated Geodesy ( IG ) are studied . 4-d IG is developed by introducing time vaviate into 3—d integrated adjustment . Using IG and dynamical adjustment theoy , practical model and fundemental equatio equations are established , and the observation equations of parameters such as gravity vector , zenith distance, azimuth angle, distance, normal difference in height and gravity potential difference are derived as well as the functions disturbed by time variant elements. The troublesome...

problems in Practical Integrated Geodesy ( IG ) are studied . 4-d IG is developed by introducing time vaviate into 3—d integrated adjustment . Using IG and dynamical adjustment theoy , practical model and fundemental equatio equations are established , and the observation equations of parameters such as gravity vector , zenith distance, azimuth angle, distance, normal difference in height and gravity potential difference are derived as well as the functions disturbed by time variant elements. The troublesome qraetical determination of local gravity field eovaviance is resolved here. Pavrt of the software OPERA ( Landan Hein , FRG ) is improved into a Fortran program on MAS MASSCOMP computer, which is used to compute the integrated adjustment and the strain parameters of two term observation results of a triangular net with 900km circumference, 50, 000km~2 area , 4 primary cmd 2secondary tria triangulation chains along with large amount of gravity , level and astronomic measurments. The result is relatively satisfactory .

本文研究了四维整体大地测量实用化和空间应变的一系列问题。利用整体大地测量和动态平差的理论,建立了实用模型,导出了重力向量、天顶距、方位角、距离、正常高差和重力位差的观测方程,解决了实用化的局部重力场协方差函数求定的问题。改进了西德学者Landan、Hein等人的OPERA软件,并转换为MASSCOMP小型机用Fortran语言编写的程序;用这套程序进行了周长约970公里、总面积约5万平方公里、包含一个一等三角锁环和部分二等三角点(共124个点)的三角网和重力、水准、天文测量两期资料的整体平差;推导了三维应变的公式并计算了应变参数;取得了一些有参考价值初步结果。

Since the general geometrical fitting method of GPS level cannot be used directly for height transfer across obstacle when the height datum planes of both sides of obstacle are not consistent, a new method named GPS astronomical leveling is proposed based on astronomical leveling.First,GPS leveling is used to fit local quasi geoid of both sides of obstacle and then vertical deflections are determined, which belong to WGS-84.Second,because they belong to the same system,the principle of astronomical leveling...

Since the general geometrical fitting method of GPS level cannot be used directly for height transfer across obstacle when the height datum planes of both sides of obstacle are not consistent, a new method named GPS astronomical leveling is proposed based on astronomical leveling.First,GPS leveling is used to fit local quasi geoid of both sides of obstacle and then vertical deflections are determined, which belong to WGS-84.Second,because they belong to the same system,the principle of astronomical leveling can be adopted to calculate the height anomaly difference across obstacle.At last, normal height difference across obstacle can be determined through ellipsoidal height difference by GPS.Based on the above method,GPS network of the Liaoning Fuxin Channeling Water Project was tested. At a distance of (9.6 km,) the transferred normal height difference by this method is 12 mm, compared with that by independent Ⅲ grade leveling. The results show that GPS astronomical leveling is an effective method for height transfer across obstacle at a long distance with high precision.

鉴于障碍物两侧的高程基准不一致,采用常规的GPS水准数值拟合方法,无法实现跨障碍高程传递,提出了一种天文GPS水准方法,即采用常规GPS水准方法分别拟合障碍物两侧的似大地水准面形状,分别求得相对于WGS 84的地面垂线偏差;由于两侧所求垂线偏差属于同一系统,因此,可根据天文水准原理,进一步计算出跨障碍的高程异常差;再由GPS所测大地高差,可获得跨障碍的正常高差。应用该方法对辽宁阜新引水工程GPS网进行试验,在9.6km的跨越距离上,试验结果与独立的三等几何水准结果比较,差值为12mm。研究结果表明:天文GPS水准方法是一种远距离、高精度跨障碍高程传递方法。

 
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