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AbstractChinese characters “A Du” in 《Shi Shuo Xin Yu》, a demonstrative pronoun for expressing distance, is analogous to “that”,“there” of modern Chinese, which derives from “He Chu”. As a demonstrative pronoun, it developes from “A Du” in the Weijin, to“A Di”,“Wu Di” in the Tangsongyuan, to present-day’s dialect “Wu Da”. Also regarded as a interrogative pronoun, it has the evolution from “He Chu” or “A Du” in ancient books to “A Da”,“A Ta” in contemporary dialect.“A” is the interchangeability of “He”, can be...

AbstractChinese characters “A Du” in 《Shi Shuo Xin Yu》, a demonstrative pronoun for expressing distance, is analogous to “that”,“there” of modern Chinese, which derives from “He Chu”. As a demonstrative pronoun, it developes from “A Du” in the Weijin, to“A Di”,“Wu Di” in the Tangsongyuan, to present-day’s dialect “Wu Da”. Also regarded as a interrogative pronoun, it has the evolution from “He Chu” or “A Du” in ancient books to “A Da”,“A Ta” in contemporary dialect.“A” is the interchangeability of “He”, can be regarded as interrogative pronoun or demonstrative pronoun, and also is not a mood word. “Wu”,as the change of “A”’s intonation, is a non-mood word.

《世说新语》中的“阿堵”为远指代词,相当今天的“那个”、“那里”,它的源头是“何处”;作为远指代词,魏晋演变作“阿堵”,唐宋元时作“阿底”、“兀底”,今方言中作“兀搭”;作为疑问代词的一支,古书或作“何处”或作“阿堵”,今方言中作“阿搭”、“阿坨”等。“阿”是“何”的同音通假,意义发展或作疑问代词,或作远指代词,不是传统所说的语气词。“兀”作为“阿”的音变,是远指代词,也非语气词。

The "把" sentence in the Chinese Language was not created during the Tang and Song dynasties.Various sources & structures, frequent use, and expansion of its expression constitute the main characteristics of the sentence pattern during the Tang and Sang dynasties. The interachon of these factors, such as the outer influences of contrary structure of the Altaic language family in the north to the direct structure, and the functionalization of the Chinese characters "将 and 把", and the solidification of the verb-complement...

The "把" sentence in the Chinese Language was not created during the Tang and Song dynasties.Various sources & structures, frequent use, and expansion of its expression constitute the main characteristics of the sentence pattern during the Tang and Sang dynasties. The interachon of these factors, such as the outer influences of contrary structure of the Altaic language family in the north to the direct structure, and the functionalization of the Chinese characters "将 and 把", and the solidification of the verb-complement structure, etc. make the "把"sentence produce more forms by classification.

把字句并非生成于唐宋时代.来源多样,结构有变,数量增加,表义范围扩大等构成了唐宋把字句的显著特点.北方阿尔泰语系逆行结构对汉语顺行结构的外在影响与汉语内部“将、把”的虚化,动补结构的凝固等因素交互作用,使把字句迅速类化出更多的形式.

Abstract By means of a historical investigation and analysis of analogy in the Chinese language the author defines its developmental focus and sequence of ideas. The author believes that when investigating historical linguistic phenomena we must sometimes throw historical comparisons to the wind, and understand such phenomena from the perspective of language infiltration and fusion. This is the case in studying analogies in the Yuan and Ming dynasties, when new sentence patterns and grammatical functions quite...

Abstract By means of a historical investigation and analysis of analogy in the Chinese language the author defines its developmental focus and sequence of ideas. The author believes that when investigating historical linguistic phenomena we must sometimes throw historical comparisons to the wind, and understand such phenomena from the perspective of language infiltration and fusion. This is the case in studying analogies in the Yuan and Ming dynasties, when new sentence patterns and grammatical functions quite different from those of the Qin and Tang dynasties appeared. These came into being under the influence of the Altaic languages (mainly Mongolian), not as a result of inheritance and the development of earlier Chinese sentence patterns. Such patterns went through a process from imitation and copying to readjustment and transformation, and were finally introduced into the Chinese grammatical system. They were thus the product of language contacts, infiltration and fusion under specific historical and social conditions. Analogies in the modern Chinese language also represent the results of language infiltration and fusion; both forms of analogy are merged and two types of grammatical function are incorporated.

本文通过对汉语比拟式历史的考察和分析,梳理了它的发展轨迹和脉络。作者认为,在考察历史语言现象时,有时须跳出历史比较法的框框,从语言渗透、语言融合的角度去把握。元明时期的比拟式正应如此解释。金元时期出现了与先秦唐宋完全不同的新的句式和语法功能,这种句式不是汉语原有句式的继承和发展,而是受阿尔泰语(主要是蒙古语)语法影响而产生的。它经过了从模仿照搬到逐步调整、改造,从而纳入汉语语法体系的过程,是在特定历史社会条件下语言接触、渗透和融合的产物。而现代汉语的比拟式则充分地体现了语言渗透和融合的结果:上述两种比拟式的形式融为一体,两种语法功能也兼而有之。

 
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