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  tang and song dynasties
Discussions on the contrast between the Tang and Song dynasties are common in Chinese cultural and intellectual history.
      
It promoted economic and social development of the Sui, Tang and Song dynasties (605 A.D.-1279 A.D.).
      
During the Tang and Song dynasties, Chengdu was famous for its music, songs and operas.
      
  tang and song dynasty
The progression of moxibustion therapy in Tang and Song Dynasty folk medicine: An analysis on the background of technology choic
      
  tang and song
The Fu of Minnan: A Local Clan in Late Tang and Song China (9th-13th Centuries)
      
Discussions on the contrast between the Tang and Song dynasties are common in Chinese cultural and intellectual history.
      
Shifting our concern from the "original thinking" of the Tang and Song to the "compromise thinking" of the Song and Ming will cause an increase in the kinds of documents about cultural and intellectual history.
      
The progression of moxibustion therapy in Tang and Song Dynasty folk medicine: An analysis on the background of technology choic
      
Evolution of Ci Poetry of the dynasties of Tang and Song in the perspective of dissociation and integration of Shi and Ci
      
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  tang-song
Tang-Song or Song-Ming: The Significance of a Perspective Shift in Chinese Cultural and Intellectual History
      
This transformation in medieval China illustrates the decline of the imperial power's direct control over its subjects and reflects the historical trends of the social evolutions taking place during the Tang-Song Era.
      


inghushan Mount is also called Fengdushan Mount. It is one of the Seventy─two SacredPlaces of Taoism,a place where belief in hell was prevalent to such an extent aniong the peoplethat it was also known as"Devil City"in history. Based on rich historical records,this paperpoints out that Taoism in Pingdushan Mount has a long history that originared from the Han andJin Dynasties,flourished in the Tang and Song,and well came down into the Ming and Qng Dy-nasties.

平都山又名丰都山,为道教七十二福地之一,当地民间中地狱信仰十分流行,故历史上有"鬼都"之称。本文从各种史书、笔记中搜罗了丰富的史料,指出平都山道教始于汉晋,兴于唐宋,下及明清,可谓源远流长。

Abstract In ancient China, the relationship between the state and religion was actually the relationship between the power of Emperor and Divine power. From remote times—Xia, Shang, Zhou Dynasties to late Qing Dynasty, the state was ruled by absolute monarchy with the supremacy of Emperor's power at its centre, and as such, an organic state system by integrating politics, ethics with religion was formulated. Proceeding from this point of view, the author analyses the various complicated relationships between...

Abstract In ancient China, the relationship between the state and religion was actually the relationship between the power of Emperor and Divine power. From remote times—Xia, Shang, Zhou Dynasties to late Qing Dynasty, the state was ruled by absolute monarchy with the supremacy of Emperor's power at its centre, and as such, an organic state system by integrating politics, ethics with religion was formulated. Proceeding from this point of view, the author analyses the various complicated relationships between ancient traditional Chinese religion, religions of foreign origin and the power of Emperor. The Heavenly God worship, the doctrines of three traditions and prophecies and incantations in the traditional Chinese religion was nothing but the mythologies to prove that the power of Emperor was bestowed by God. Although Taoism at its initial stage reflected the ideology and demands of the peasants, it began after Wei and Jin Dynasties to compromise with the ruling class, and obey the Emperor's power. Buddhism has always depended on the ruling class ever since its entry into China. From the Nor-thern and Southern Dynasties onwards, the Chinese rulers on the one hand supported, rewarded and made use of Buddhism with great effort, on the other hand they were on constant guard against it and controlled it strictly. Since its coming into China, Islam was generally protected and supported by the state in the Tang and Song periods, but this kind of policy was thoroughly altered in the Qing Dynasty, so as to enhance the power of Emperor. For the same reason, Nestorianism, Manichaeism, Judaism and Catholicism which came to the land after the Tang Dynasty have been tolerated, protected, restricted and assimilated by all feudal dynasties. Accordingly, the struggles between the pope and the crown seldom occurred in Chinese history as it did in the history of the West. Born in 1928, the author is Research Fellow of the Asia-Pacific Institute, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

宗教与国家的关系,在中国古代也就是皇权与神权的关系。我国自远古夏商周三代起直至清末为止一直被专制君主统治着,以君权至上为核心,使政治、伦理与宗教三者构成了一体化的国家体制。作者从这个观点出发,系统地、历史地分析了中国古代传统宗教、外来宗教与皇权之间的种种复杂关系。中国传统宗教中的天帝崇拜、三统的说教和谶语符命等等无不是为了证明君权神授和国运昌盛或转移的神话;道教在魏晋以后开始与统治阶级相妥协,臣服于皇权,道教自身的内容也相应地有了变化;佛教传入中国后一直依附于统治阶级,所谓“不依国主,则法事难立”,从南北朝开始,统治者一方面大力扶持、奖掖和利用佛教,另一方面对佛教进行严密的防范和管制;伊斯兰教传入中国后,唐宋时期统治者一般采取怀柔、保护和扶持为主,限制为辅的政策,但这种政策到清朝时有了彻底的改变,这些改变也是为了巩固皇权的需要;对唐以后传入的景教、摩尼教、犹太教、天主教等一直采取宽容、保护、限制和同化的政策,但这都是为了加强皇权的需要,因之,中国历史上很少出现像西方那样的“权杖与皇冠”相斗争的事件。

Based on the Dunhuang manuscripts, the present paper deals with the Buddhist,customs of first month of the each Lunar Year in the Tang and Song Dynasties. Main ceremonies are follows: 1. Zhai-ri-she-yue 斋日设乐,namely playing music in monasteries; 2. si-men-she-tan 四门设坛,i. e. setting up places for teaching, learning, or practicing Buddhism in four gates of Dunhuang city; 3. An-san-xuan-cheng 安伞旋城,or putting white umbrellas surrounding the Dunhuang city,and so on. They are originally religious ceremonies. Lately,...

Based on the Dunhuang manuscripts, the present paper deals with the Buddhist,customs of first month of the each Lunar Year in the Tang and Song Dynasties. Main ceremonies are follows: 1. Zhai-ri-she-yue 斋日设乐,namely playing music in monasteries; 2. si-men-she-tan 四门设坛,i. e. setting up places for teaching, learning, or practicing Buddhism in four gates of Dunhuang city; 3. An-san-xuan-cheng 安伞旋城,or putting white umbrellas surrounding the Dunhuang city,and so on. They are originally religious ceremonies. Lately, the ceremonies were introced into the folk festi- vals in Dunhuang and other areas in the course of time. This is an example what the religions gave their influences on civil society.

岁时佛俗指岁时活动中的佛俗。岁时本是民间一年四季的常规性活动,带有浓厚的传统民俗色彩,但随着佛教的传入,佛俗亦与我国的岁时活动相互交融,或佛教行我国的民俗,或佛俗演变为我国的岁时。本文首先介绍唐宋时期敦煌地区正月的岁时佛俗。

 
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