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原发性损伤
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  primary injury
     The secondary injury is a series of molecular biologic reaction caused by the primary injury, while the causes of the secondary injury are cellular toxity, free radical injury, inflammation, cell apoptosis, etc.
     原发性损伤只能预防,继发性损伤是源自原发性损伤并由此带来的一系列分子及生物学反应,其原因有细胞毒、自由基损伤、炎症、细胞因子、细胞凋亡等,细胞凋亡是其中的重要因素之一,已经有许多的实验研究和临床研究发现脊髓损伤后存在神经细胞凋亡的现象。
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     Methods The primary injury,treatment procedure,occurrence/development of secondary myopia and the results of their correction were observed in 4 cases with the secondary myopia after IOL implantation for traumatic cataract.
     方法 观察 4例外伤性白内障IOL植入术后发生继发性近视的原发性损伤、治疗经过及矫正结果。
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     The acute spinal cord injury can be divided into two stages, the primary injury and the secondary injury.
     急性脊髓损伤可分为原发性损伤和继发性损伤两个阶段。
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     Neurons, glial cells and microvessels in segments of the cord around the primary injury will be exposed to a wide range of adverse alterations in their cellular and fluid microenvironment Some of the cells cannot withstand the changes and die:so-called secondary injuries.
     原发性损伤周围的神经元细胞、胶质细胞、以及毛细血管暴露于明显变化的微环境中,其中一些细胞由于不能耐受这种变化而死亡,这是所谓的继发性损伤。
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     TBI includes primary injury and secondary injury.
     创伤性颅脑损伤分为原发性损伤和继发性损伤两方面。
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  primary lesion
     Conclusion T cells and B cells in spleens of SARS patients decreased widely spread and markedly in number,indicating that the immune system had been damaged severely,and the destroyment of the immunosystem may be the primary lesion of SARS.
     结论定量分析显示,SARS死亡患者脾中T细胞和B细胞普遍严重减少,提示SARS患者免疫系统遭到严重破坏,并可能是疾病的原发性损伤
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  “原发性损伤”译为未确定词的双语例句
     BackgroundPrimary injury and secondary injury mechanisms are involved in the development and progress of pathology after acute spinal cord injury (SCI).
     急性脊髓损伤(spinal cord injury, SCI)后其病理发生发展由两种损伤机制主导,即原发性损伤和继发性损伤。
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     Conclusion: The phases of C fos gene expression after SCI were closely related to the mechanism of primary and secondary injury.
     结论 :脊髓损伤后C fos基因表达的情况可能与脊髓原发性损伤和继发性损伤机制有关。
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     (2)The changes of LT and DT are more sensitive to indicate the structural damages of facial nerve.
     (2)DT、LIT的变化对反映早期严重的神经结构损害较敏感,DR、Am 主要显示原发性损伤后的神经失用水平以及变性与修复的转变过程。
     PrefaceSpinal cord injury can cause primary damage, a series of secondary cascade damages and a series of protective plerosis to avoid spinal cord injury and promote rehabilitation of it.
     脊髓损伤后会出现原发性损伤及由其引起的一系列级联放大的迟发性神经坏死而造成的继发性损伤,同时也会出现一系列保护修复性的反应,以减少脊髓损伤并促进脊髓损伤的修复。
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     Conclusions Pathological examination reveals that there are primary and secondary injuries in indirect optic nerve injury.
     结论 视神经间接损伤存在原发性损伤 (早期挫伤性坏死 )和继发性损伤 (血管破裂、闭塞 ,神经轴心梗死区等微循环障碍 )。
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  primary injury
Brain damage following traumatic injury is a result of direct (immediate mechanical disruption of brain tissue, or primary injury) and indirect (secondary or delayed) mechanisms.
      
This review of the highly complex area of pediatric NIC allows several conclusions:1.The relative importance of primary injury has probably been underestimated.
      
Neither the need for general anaesthesia at primary injury nor the occupation of the patient was a relevant factor in the final outcome of the dislocation.
      
Such material was seen both proximal and distal to the primary injury and even in rats with a low magnitude of compression.
      
The results indicate that within and close to the primary injury of compressed spinal cord exudation of fibronectin may occur from the plasma of microvessles provided that the impact is severe enough to cause intramedullary hemorrhages.
      
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  primary lesion
The primary lesion is a linear fracture of the calvarium associated with a ruptured dura mater and a localised soft swelling of the scalp beneath the intact skin.
      
A report is given on 29 cases of olivary hypertrophy of different origin with special reference to the quality and topistic distribution of olivary degeneration in relation to the dating and site of the primary lesion.
      
This degeneration is usually secondary to a primary lesion located either in the ipsilateral (to the hypertrophied olive) central tegmental tract or in the contralateral dentate nucleus.
      
The myofascial trigger points are located in paraspinal muscles that shared the same or adjacent spinal nerves with the primary lesion causing the chronic pain condition.
      
Parts of the patients staged at T1, T2 and T3 underwent resection of primary lesion followed by neck observation, and other patients staged above T2 or at T1 but without follow-up were treated with elective neck dissection (END).
      
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This paper gives a concise review of new hypotheses on the mode of action of insecticides proposed by Dr. Philip Gerolt in 1933. According to Gerolt , the circulatory system of the insect is not instrumental in transporting insecticides to their site of action.It is the tracheal system that offers a very effective pathway for insecticides to the internal organs. This is a new hypothesis regarding the mechanism of entry. As to the mods of action,it is suggested that water extrusion affects the integument's permeability...

This paper gives a concise review of new hypotheses on the mode of action of insecticides proposed by Dr. Philip Gerolt in 1933. According to Gerolt , the circulatory system of the insect is not instrumental in transporting insecticides to their site of action.It is the tracheal system that offers a very effective pathway for insecticides to the internal organs. This is a new hypothesis regarding the mechanism of entry. As to the mods of action,it is suggested that water extrusion affects the integument's permeability to respiratory gases, resulting in a rate of respiration not commensurate with metabolic need, and that the insecticide's arrival in the trichea(traceoles) of the central nervous system(CNS)leads to excitation and knockdown. Death is thought most likely to be due to dehydration of the CNS and subsequent histological degeneration.The new hypotheses may prove to be very important in the field of insect toxicology and deserve further investigations.

本文着重介绍了英国昆虫毒理学家Philip Gerolt近年来所提出的有关杀虫剂毒理学方面的一些新理论、新观点。Gerolt一反传统的经典理论,认为:①大多数杀虫剂主要是通过气管系统这一途径进入昆虫体内;②杀虫剂在虫体内的转移过程中,血淋巴是次要的,而主要是通过昆虫表皮的侧向扩散和在真皮细胞与内表皮之间的主动运输,再经由气管系统而到达作用靶子;③昆虫中毒死亡是由于杀虫剂影响了昆虫表皮内的水分平衡,使机体受到“原发性损伤”,同时,到达靶子的杀虫剂可使中枢神经系统脱水并引起组织变性所造成的。Gerolt的这些新理论和新观点是很值得我们重视并加以研究讨论的。

The article analysed the indentification for degree of injury in 200 cases of living body from 1983 to 1986.The result show that the injury in 83 cases is serious and in 115 is slight.There are 167 male and 33 female among 200 cases. Most cases occur in the group at the age of youngsters,The most common inju- rant is fist and foot.Injury of the head is the most common on the situs of in- jury.The incidence of complication is 20.5%.The incidence of sequela is 38%. The authors had a discussion on the important...

The article analysed the indentification for degree of injury in 200 cases of living body from 1983 to 1986.The result show that the injury in 83 cases is serious and in 115 is slight.There are 167 male and 33 female among 200 cases. Most cases occur in the group at the age of youngsters,The most common inju- rant is fist and foot.Injury of the head is the most common on the situs of in- jury.The incidence of complication is 20.5%.The incidence of sequela is 38%. The authors had a discussion on the important significance of primary injury and complication as well as sequela in the identification for degree of injury.

本文对200例活体损伤程度的鉴定进行了统计和分析(1983~1986)。结果表明:重伤占42.5%,轻伤占57.5%。男性占83.5%,女性16.5%。年龄以青少年组为多。致伤物以拳脚占首位。损伤部位以颅脑损伤最多。并发症的出现率为20.5%;后遗症的出现率为38%。本文对原发性损伤、并发症、后遗症在活体损伤程度鉴定中的重要意义亦进行了讨论。

Two hundred 21-day-old chicks were divided into four diet treatment groups of 50 each and given a . high calcium and low available phosphorus ( HCLP ) , high calcium and normal available phosphorus ( HCNP ) , normal calcium and low available phosphorus ( NCLP ) ,or normal calcium and normal available phosphorus (NCNP) diets to study the effect of high dietary calcium and low dietary phosphorus on the development of chicken gout and the mechanism of urate deposition, the result shows that HCLP and HCNP diets...

Two hundred 21-day-old chicks were divided into four diet treatment groups of 50 each and given a . high calcium and low available phosphorus ( HCLP ) , high calcium and normal available phosphorus ( HCNP ) , normal calcium and low available phosphorus ( NCLP ) ,or normal calcium and normal available phosphorus (NCNP) diets to study the effect of high dietary calcium and low dietary phosphorus on the development of chicken gout and the mechanism of urate deposition, the result shows that HCLP and HCNP diets caused visceral urate deposition and urloithiasis. Kidney was the primarily and worst injured organ in the development of the gout. High dietary calcium caused hypercalciumemia and hypophosphorusemia, and in cooperation with low dietary phosphorus caused metabolism alkalosis, which resulted in urloithiasis by changing urine property. Renal failure was caused by secondary renal tubul injury following urloithiasis and primary injury by high calcium, which resulted in hyperuricemia and visceral urate deposition.

用200只21日龄海赛克斯×罗斯杂交商品代鸡,按钙、磷2×2因子设计进行高钙、低磷饲料人工诱发痛风试验。采用病理形态学及血液生化测定方法进行了十三周的试验观察。结果表明,高钙低磷、高钙正磷饲料能引起鸡痛风。尿酸盐沉积形式有内脏性尿酸盐沉积和尿石症。高钙起主导作用,低磷可以促进其发生。痛风发生的原发性损伤部位及病变最严重的器官是肾脏。饲料高钙导致的高钙血症、低磷血症及代谢性碱中毒,通过改变尿液环境而引起尿石症的发生。高钙所致的肾小管原发性损伤和继发于尿石症的损害共同导致鸡肾功能衰竭,而形成高尿酸血症,并出现内脏性尿酸盐沉积。

 
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