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  “dm)”译为未确定词的双语例句
     DM: FBG≥7.0mmol/L and/or 2HBG≥11.1mmol/L .
     糖尿病(diabetes mellitus,DM)组:FBG≥7.0mmol/L和/或2HBG≥11.1mmol/L。
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     Method Permethrin(PM)and deltamethrin(DM)were administered to the rats with daily doses of100,200and400mg ·kg -1 ·d -1 and6.25,12.5and25mg ·kg -1 ·d -1 ,respectivelly for15days.
     方法经口连续15d给予大鼠氯菊酯(PM)100、200、400mg·kg-1·d-1和溴氰菊酯(DM)6.25、12.50、25.00mg·kg-1·d-1。
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     \ Methods\ The changes of urinary special protein of 24 hours: urinary album excretion rate (UAE),α 1 microg lobulin(α 1 M),β 2 microglobulin(β 2 M),immunoglobulin G(IgG) and transferrin(TRF) were determined in 118 normal controls and 126 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients by immune rate nephelometry method.
     ②方法采用免疫速率散射比浊法,检测了126例2型糖尿病(DM)病人和118例正常人的24h尿液清蛋白排泄率(UAE),α1-微球蛋白(α1-M),β2-微球蛋白(β2-M),转铁蛋白(TRF),免疫球蛋白G(IgG)的变化。
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     The regression equations were:P (DM) =l.
     P(DM)=1.4631X+55.545 r~2=0.767 n=20
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     Methods: The anti-cancer effects of As2O3 and HCPT used alone and in combination were investigated by MTT assay and and evaluated by the median-effect principle.
     方法:以大肠癌LS-174-T细胞为对象、以HCPT作对比,应用MTT法检测As2O3和HCPT对癌细胞生长的抑制作用,利用中效原理算出As2O3、HCPT对癌细胞抑制作用的中效浓度(Dm)
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     dm?
     dm?
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     Tragicomical DM
     悲喜DM
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  dm
Let Γ be a smooth compact convex planar curve with arc length dm and let dσ=ψ dm where ψ is a cutoff function.
      
For any subset K of C and any integer m?1, write A(Dm, K)={f‖f: Dm→K is a continuous map, and f‖(Dm)° is analytit}.
      
For H∈A(Dm,C)(m?2), f∈A(D, D) and z∈D, write ΨH(f)(z)=H(z, f(z),...,fm-1(z)).
      
The ratio of the moisture content (MC) gradient to the temperature gradient (dM/dT) was calculated and the factors influencing moisture movement under nonisothermal conditions were discussed.
      
The moisture content gradient opposite to the temperature gradient was established, and the dM/dT was below 0.9%/°C.
      
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Integrating with respect to time the equation for the balance of angular momentum of the atmosphere north of certain latitude (30°N say)we obtainIn the above equation ρ is thedensity; (?), the zonal wind; v, the meridional wind; R, the earth's radius; Ω, the angular speed-of the earth's rotation; dm, the mass element of the atmosphere; dτ, the volume element; ds, the area element on the earth's surface, and dσ, the urea element on the vertical surface over the latitudial circle of 30°N. The first two terms...

Integrating with respect to time the equation for the balance of angular momentum of the atmosphere north of certain latitude (30°N say)we obtainIn the above equation ρ is thedensity; (?), the zonal wind; v, the meridional wind; R, the earth's radius; Ω, the angular speed-of the earth's rotation; dm, the mass element of the atmosphere; dτ, the volume element; ds, the area element on the earth's surface, and dσ, the urea element on the vertical surface over the latitudial circle of 30°N. The first two terms (in the parenthesis) On the left side of (2) are evaluated from the mean westerlies in summer and winter given by Mintz. The last two terms on the left and the first two terms on the right side of (2) are evaluated from the mean surface pressure charts of July and January. The transfer of angular momentum across latitude 30°N given by Starr and White is used to evaluate the 3rd. term on the right. Then the value of the last two terms in the parenthesis on the right of (2) is calculated. The result agrees very well with that obtained by other authers.It is further found that: 1. From summer to winter the transfer of angular momentum from low to high latitudes by gross weather systems overcompensates the destruction by the earth's surface. The small residue of these two factors acounts for the main part (about85%)of increase of westerly circulation from summer to winter. The remaining small part of the increase of the westerly circulation may be acounted for by the advection of mass of the atmosphere, which carries the angular momentum due to earth's rotation (difference between the first two terms on the right and the last two terms on the left side of (2)).2. The transfer of angular momentum or the destruction of angular momentum, as well as the intensity of the westerly circulation has annual variation. However this annual variation is not of sine or cosine type, i,θ, the variation from summer to winter is not the opposite of that from winter to. summer. The property of this asymmetry is explained by the irreversible heat addition and subtraction. From winter, to summer heat is added to, and summer to winter heat is subtracted from the atmosphere (N.H.). Since the process of adding and subtracting heat is irreversible, the variation from summer to winter can not be symmetric to that from winter to summer.3. Transfer of angular momentum from easterlies to westerlies occurs mainly in the period of breakdown of zonal circulation (low index), mainly in the belt of longitudes of"extended troughs" (troughs extending from high to low latitudes) and "extended ridges" (ridges extending from low to highlatitudes), and mainly in the high levels of the atmosphere.

把30°N以北大气角動量平衡方程由七月積分到一月,則其中各項都可計算:此緯度以北大气相对西風角動量的改变可用Mintz平均西風冬夏分佈圖算出;地轉角動量的改变可用冬夏地面平均气压圖算出;通过30°N緯度的角動量的渦動輸送已为Starr和White算出,因此利用積分結果可求得30°N以北地面应力和山脈东西兩側气压差所引起的角動量消耗,結果与别的作者用别的方法所得數值極为符合。 作者更指出: 1.从夏到冬大型天气系統的角动量輸送勝过地面摩擦的消耗,从夏到冬西風环流增强的主要部分(約85%)即由於二者之差,西風环流增强的其餘一小部分則由於大气的質量平流,而引起地轉角動量的傳送。 2.角動量的输送,角動量的消耗以及西風环流强度都有年变化。但这种年变化並非正餘弦型,即从夏到冬的变化並不正是从冬到夏变化的反面,此种非对称性可由加熱过程和减熱过程的不可逆性解釋。在北半球从冬到夏对大气來说是加熱的,而从夏到冬大气失去熱量,因为加熟过程和減熱过程都不是可逆的,故从夏到冬的变化也不与从冬到夏的变化对称。 3.东風帶向西風帶的角動量輸送,主要發生於西風环流破坏的時候;主要發生於“引伸槽”和“引伸脊”的經度帶;同時也主要發生於大气的...

把30°N以北大气角動量平衡方程由七月積分到一月,則其中各項都可計算:此緯度以北大气相对西風角動量的改变可用Mintz平均西風冬夏分佈圖算出;地轉角動量的改变可用冬夏地面平均气压圖算出;通过30°N緯度的角動量的渦動輸送已为Starr和White算出,因此利用積分結果可求得30°N以北地面应力和山脈东西兩側气压差所引起的角動量消耗,結果与别的作者用别的方法所得數值極为符合。 作者更指出: 1.从夏到冬大型天气系統的角动量輸送勝过地面摩擦的消耗,从夏到冬西風环流增强的主要部分(約85%)即由於二者之差,西風环流增强的其餘一小部分則由於大气的質量平流,而引起地轉角動量的傳送。 2.角動量的输送,角動量的消耗以及西風环流强度都有年变化。但这种年变化並非正餘弦型,即从夏到冬的变化並不正是从冬到夏变化的反面,此种非对称性可由加熱过程和减熱过程的不可逆性解釋。在北半球从冬到夏对大气來说是加熱的,而从夏到冬大气失去熱量,因为加熟过程和減熱过程都不是可逆的,故从夏到冬的变化也不与从冬到夏的变化对称。 3.东風帶向西風帶的角動量輸送,主要發生於西風环流破坏的時候;主要發生於“引伸槽”和“引伸脊”的經度帶;同時也主要發生於大气的高層。

The title compound was synthesized from D-xylose.Methyl α-and β-D-xylofuranoside mixture(Ⅱ),prepared according to Levene et al.was treated with toluene-p-sulphonyl chloride inpyridine first at 0℃ and then at room temperature for four days,followed by usual procedureof isolation and fractional crystallization from alcohol to give 45.1% yield of crystalline methyl2,3,5-tri-O-toluene-p-sulphonyl-β-D-xylofuranoside(Ⅲ),m.p.131—132℃,[α]_D~(24.5)=-31.5°(chloroform,c=1.00,l=2 dm.).In order to obtain(Ⅲ)in crystalline...

The title compound was synthesized from D-xylose.Methyl α-and β-D-xylofuranoside mixture(Ⅱ),prepared according to Levene et al.was treated with toluene-p-sulphonyl chloride inpyridine first at 0℃ and then at room temperature for four days,followed by usual procedureof isolation and fractional crystallization from alcohol to give 45.1% yield of crystalline methyl2,3,5-tri-O-toluene-p-sulphonyl-β-D-xylofuranoside(Ⅲ),m.p.131—132℃,[α]_D~(24.5)=-31.5°(chloroform,c=1.00,l=2 dm.).In order to obtain(Ⅲ)in crystalline state,the methyl D-xylofuranoside mixture should be distilled under a vacuum not below 0.05 mm.Methyl β-D-xylopyranoside(Ⅷ)was similarly converted into methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-toluene-p-sulphonyl-β-D-xylopyranoside(Ⅸ),m.p.138—139℃,[α]_D~24=-37°(chloroform,c=0.50,l=2 dm.)with a yield of 81%.These two tritoluene-p-sulphonyl esters showed a mixed melting pointof 120—123℃.On the other hand,the authentic methyl 2-O-toluene-p-sulphonyl-β-D-xylofura-noside obtained by hydrolysis of the crystalline methyl 2-O-toluene-p-sulphonyl-3,5-O-isopropyli-dene-β-D-xylofuranoside as reported in Part Ⅳ on similar treatment gave rise to a tritoluene-p-sulphonyl ester identical in every respect with(Ⅲ),and so established the anomeric configu-ration of the latter.(Ⅲ)was caused to react with sodium iodide in acetone at 100℃(Oldham-Rutherfordreaction)for eight hours to give 97% yield of methyl 2,3-di-O-toluene-p-sulphonyl-5-deoxy-5-iodo-β-D-xylofuranoside(Ⅳ),m.p.105—106℃,[α]_D~(23.5)=-55°(chloroform,c=1.00,l=2dm.),which was in turn hydrogenated in the presence of Raney nickel to yield the syrupy methyl2,3-di-O-toluene-p-sulphonyl-β-D-xylomethyloside(Ⅴ).Finally,(Ⅴ)was treated with sodiummethoxide in chloroform at 0℃ and methyl 2,3-anhydro-β-D-ribomethyloside was obtained as acolorless,mobile liquid,b.p.46—48℃/1—2 mm,[α]_D~24=-113.5°(chloroform,c=0.52,l=2 dm.).The overall yield from D-xylose was 18%.The structure of the anhydro sugar wasdeduced from existing evidence.

自木糖经过五步反应合成了2,3-内醚-5-去羟-β-D-核糖甲基甙(Ⅵ)。这五步反应是:D-木糖(Ⅰ)→D-木糖甲基呋喃甙(Ⅱ,α-和β-端基差向异构体混合物)→2,3,5-三-O-对甲苯磺酰基-β-D-木糖甲基呋喃甙(Ⅲ)→2,3-二-O-对甲苯磺酰基-5-去羟-5-碘代-β-D-木糖甲基呋喃甙(Ⅳ)→2,3-二-O-对甲苯磺酰基-5-去羟-β-D-木糖甲基甙(Ⅴ)→2,3-内醚-5-去羟-β-D-核糖甲基甙(Ⅵ)。总产率是18%。将已知的结晶的2-O-对甲苯磺酰基-β-D-木糖甲基呋喃甙(Ⅶ)进行对甲苯磺酰化,得到与上述完全相同的Ⅲ,这样就证明了Ⅲ的端基的构型。同时,也从β-D-木糖甲基吡喃甙(Ⅷ)制备了2,3,4-三-O-对甲苯磺酰基-β-D-木糖甲基吡喃甙(Ⅸ)。根据现有的知识肯定了合成的内醚糖的结构。

By the same route outlined in Part Ⅲ of this series,the title compound was preparedfrom D-arabinose by five stages of reactions.Toluene-p-sulphonation in pyridine of α- and β-D-arabofuranoside mixture(Ⅱ),prepared according to Halliburton and McIlroy first at 0℃and then at room temperature,followed by fractional crystallization of the product from alcohol,gave methyl 2,3,5-tri-O-toluene-p-sulphonyl-α-D-arabofuranoside(Ⅲ),m.p.117.5—119℃,[α]_D~13=+43.9°(chloroform,c=1.09,l=2 dm.)in 39% yield.(Ⅲ)was caused...

By the same route outlined in Part Ⅲ of this series,the title compound was preparedfrom D-arabinose by five stages of reactions.Toluene-p-sulphonation in pyridine of α- and β-D-arabofuranoside mixture(Ⅱ),prepared according to Halliburton and McIlroy first at 0℃and then at room temperature,followed by fractional crystallization of the product from alcohol,gave methyl 2,3,5-tri-O-toluene-p-sulphonyl-α-D-arabofuranoside(Ⅲ),m.p.117.5—119℃,[α]_D~13=+43.9°(chloroform,c=1.09,l=2 dm.)in 39% yield.(Ⅲ)was caused toundergo Oldham-Rutherford reaction(treatment with sodium iodide in acetone for 2(1/2) hours at100℃)to give 87% yield of methyl 2,3-di-O-toluene-p-sulphonyl-5-deoxy-5-iodo-α-D-arabofurano-side(Ⅳ),m.p.122—123.5℃.[α]_D~13=+52.7°(chloroform,c=1.0065,l=2 dm.).Theiodine was then replaced with hydrogen by catalytic hydrogenation in presence of Raney nickel andthe crystalline methyl 2,3-di-O-toluene-p-sulphonyl-α-D-arabomethyloside(Ⅴ),m.p.64—66℃,[α]_D~16=+56.8°(chloroform,c=1.03,l=2 dm.),was obtained in 75% yield.The anhydroring formation was finally achieved by treating(Ⅴ)with sodium methoxide in boilingmethanol under the condition described in Part Ⅲ for the corresponding L-isomer and methyl2,3-anhydro-α-D-lyxomethyloside(Ⅵ)was obtained as a colorless,mobile liquid,b.p.67℃/19mm.,[α]_D~20=+66.9°(chloroform,c=1.069,l=2 dm.);the yield was 64.6%.

自 D-阿拉伯糖经以下五步反应合成了2,3-内醚-5-去羟-α-D-来苏糖甲基甙 (Ⅵ):D-阿拉伯糖(Ⅰ)→D-阿拉伯糖甲基呋喃甙(Ⅱ,α-和β-端基差向异构体混合物)→2,3,5-三-O-对甲苯磺酰基-α-D-阿拉伯糖甲基呋喃甙(Ⅲ)→2,3-二-O-对甲苯磺酰基-5-去羟-5-碘代-α-D-阿拉伯糖甲基呋喃甙(Ⅳ)→2,3-二-O-对甲苯磺酰基-5-去羟-α-阿拉伯糖甲基甙(Ⅴ)→2,3-内醚-5-去羟-α-D-来苏糖甲基甙(Ⅵ)。最后产物(内醚糖)的结构是根据第三报中所提出的证据肯定的。

 
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