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卫生假说
相关语句
  hygiene hypothesis
     Asthma and Hygiene Hypothesis
     支气管哮喘和卫生假说
短句来源
     Advancement of immunologic mechanisms of hygiene hypothesis in prevention and treatment of asthma
     卫生假说的免疫学机制在哮喘防治中的研究进展
短句来源
  相似匹配句对
     Asthma and Hygiene Hypothesis
     支气管哮喘和卫生假说
短句来源
     Oral Hygiene
     口腔卫生
短句来源
     Advancement of immunologic mechanisms of hygiene hypothesis in prevention and treatment of asthma
     卫生假说的免疫学机制在哮喘防治中的研究进展
短句来源
     HEALTH CARE TECHNOLOGY
     医药卫生技术
短句来源
     Reflections upon Output Hypothesis
     输出假说剖析
短句来源
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  hygiene hypothesis
The hygiene hypothesis offers an explanation of why certain environmental exposures early in life may suppress or activate clinical disease.
      
The contribution of studies on parasites and allergy to our understanding of the hygiene hypothesis has been two-fold.
      
Parasitic infections are a major theme in the "hygiene hypothesis", as allergies and autoimmune diseases are less prevalent in countries with higher burdens of helminths and other parasitic organisms.
      
Parasitic infections are a major theme in the-"hygiene hypothesis", as allergies and autoimmune diseases are less prevalent in countries with higher burdens of helminths and other parasitic organisms.
      
-to: Gale EAM (2002) A missing link in the hygiene hypothesis Diabetologia 45:588-592
      
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To test the hygienic functional hypothesis of allogrooming in the Sichuan snub nosed monkey, we analyzed the distribution of such behavior over the body surface of individuals in the West Ridge Troop in the Yuhuangmiao region of the Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi Province, China. Based on 113 days of observations of the troop, 293 allogrooming bouts were recorded using focal animal sampling. We divided the body surface of the monkeys into 17 areas. Before data analyses, 12 specimens were measured in order to calculate...

To test the hygienic functional hypothesis of allogrooming in the Sichuan snub nosed monkey, we analyzed the distribution of such behavior over the body surface of individuals in the West Ridge Troop in the Yuhuangmiao region of the Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi Province, China. Based on 113 days of observations of the troop, 293 allogrooming bouts were recorded using focal animal sampling. We divided the body surface of the monkeys into 17 areas. Before data analyses, 12 specimens were measured in order to calculate the size of each area. Each area was then ranked according to its level of accessibility to the groomer: easy to reach, difficult to reach, and inaccessible. We performed three successive analyses to determine: 1) the overall distribution of allogrooming behavior on body surface areas; 2) the overall distribution of allogroomed areas based on the three categories of accessibility; and 3) age and sex class differences in allogrooming frequencies based on both the defined body surface areas and the accessibility categories. Our preliminary results show that allogrooming behavior concentrates primarily on the dorsal and anogenital regions. Accordingly, the postures of grooming dyads precludes them from facing each other, a potential social strategy adopted by these monkeys to reduce tension and decrease conflict. Allogrooming also occurred most frequently on body surface areas in the inaccessible category. We found that the frequency of allogrooming of difficult to reach areas was proportional to the size these areas covered on the monkeys body. Furthermore, areas that were easy to reach were less frequently allogroomed than expected. Finally, the findings on age and sex class differences showed that allogrooming were influenced by social ranking. The distribution of allogrooming behavior on body surface areas strongly suggests that cleaning is an important motivation for such activity; therefore, the results support the hygienic functional hypothesis.

应用目标动物取样法 ,在 113天的跟踪观察 (有效观察时间 35 1小时 )的基础上 ,收集了 2 93个相互理毛回合 (bout)的数据 ,对秦岭川金丝猴 (Rhinopithecusroxellana)玉皇庙西梁群个体间的相互理毛进行了分析 ,检验相互理毛是否符合卫生功能假说 (Hygienicfunctionalhypothesis)。在分析数据前我们将标本的体表分为17部分 ,并定义了各部分的界限和其所占全身表面积百分比。根据自我理毛行为在身体表面各部位可进行的难易程度 ,将其分为不可进行、难以进行和易于进行部位的三种类型。为了了解相互理毛是否集中在自我理毛不容易进行的部位 ,我们做了三个相应的分析 :自我理毛在全身的分配、各部位得到相互理毛的情况、不同年龄性别组得到相互理毛的情况。结果表明限法进行自我理毛的部位得到相对多的相互理毛、难以进行自我理毛的部位得到相互理毛百分比与其占总表面积百分比相一致、易于进行部位得到相对少的相互理毛 ,这种自我理毛与相互理毛之间的补偿关系符合卫生假说。但是并非所有难以或无法进行自我理毛的部位得到均匀的相互理毛 ,相互理毛主要集中在背部和肛门繁殖区 ,不同...

应用目标动物取样法 ,在 113天的跟踪观察 (有效观察时间 35 1小时 )的基础上 ,收集了 2 93个相互理毛回合 (bout)的数据 ,对秦岭川金丝猴 (Rhinopithecusroxellana)玉皇庙西梁群个体间的相互理毛进行了分析 ,检验相互理毛是否符合卫生功能假说 (Hygienicfunctionalhypothesis)。在分析数据前我们将标本的体表分为17部分 ,并定义了各部分的界限和其所占全身表面积百分比。根据自我理毛行为在身体表面各部位可进行的难易程度 ,将其分为不可进行、难以进行和易于进行部位的三种类型。为了了解相互理毛是否集中在自我理毛不容易进行的部位 ,我们做了三个相应的分析 :自我理毛在全身的分配、各部位得到相互理毛的情况、不同年龄性别组得到相互理毛的情况。结果表明限法进行自我理毛的部位得到相对多的相互理毛、难以进行自我理毛的部位得到相互理毛百分比与其占总表面积百分比相一致、易于进行部位得到相对少的相互理毛 ,这种自我理毛与相互理毛之间的补偿关系符合卫生假说。但是并非所有难以或无法进行自我理毛的部位得到均匀的相互理毛 ,相互理毛主要集中在背部和肛门繁殖区 ,不同年龄性别组的相互理毛受到社会等级的影响 ,相互理毛的这种选择性分配 ,说明除了有卫生功能外还应该有其它的功能含义。

We studied allogrooming in a group of captive Franois langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) at the Primate Reproductive Center,Nanning Zoo,Guangxi,between July 1 and August 31.We used focal animal sampling and all occurrence recording,recording 663 allogrooming bouts in 27 days of observations (162 hours of observations).Allogrooming was concentrated primarily on body surface areas that were inaccessible during autogrooming.Areas that were easy to reach were allogroomed less frequently,supporting the hygienic functional...

We studied allogrooming in a group of captive Franois langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) at the Primate Reproductive Center,Nanning Zoo,Guangxi,between July 1 and August 31.We used focal animal sampling and all occurrence recording,recording 663 allogrooming bouts in 27 days of observations (162 hours of observations).Allogrooming was concentrated primarily on body surface areas that were inaccessible during autogrooming.Areas that were easy to reach were allogroomed less frequently,supporting the hygienic functional hypothesis.Allogrooming bout initiations and terminations were decided by groomers.Allogrooming occurred more frequently between adult females.Allogrooming was influenced by social ranking,but the highest-ranking individuals were not the most attractive gromming partners.Reciprocal allogrooming bouts among low-ranking individuals were more frequent than those between high-ranking individuals and low rank individuals.

2001年7月1日至8月31日,应用焦点动物观察法和全事件行为记录法对广西南宁动物园灵长类繁殖中心的一群黑叶猴的相互理毛行为进行了分析,从中探讨其在黑叶猴社群中的功能。在27d的观察中(有效观察时间162h),共收集了663次相互理毛行为回合的数据。结果表明,相互理毛行为主要集中在无法进行自我理毛的部位,易于进行自我理毛的部位得到相对较少的相互理毛,这与卫生假说相一致。研究表明相互理毛行为主要由理毛者发起和结束。在不同的性别年龄组中,相互理毛行为主要发生在成年雌性个体之间。虽然相互理毛行为受到社会等级的影响,但等级序位最高的个体并非最具吸引力的理毛伙伴,发生在等级序位低的个体间的相互理毛行为明显多于发生在它们与序位高的个体间的理毛行为。

Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness.Current opinion about treatment of asthma is that asthma could be controlled,but could not be eradicated.In recent years,it is suggested that exposure to microorganisms in early life may have protection against the development of asthma according to hygiene hypothesis.The conventional interpretation is immunologic reaction shifting to Th1 reaction induced by increased exposure to microorganisms.Because asthma is thought to...

Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness.Current opinion about treatment of asthma is that asthma could be controlled,but could not be eradicated.In recent years,it is suggested that exposure to microorganisms in early life may have protection against the development of asthma according to hygiene hypothesis.The conventional interpretation is immunologic reaction shifting to Th1 reaction induced by increased exposure to microorganisms.Because asthma is thought to be the result of immunotolerance deficiency,the induction of allergen-specific T-cell tolerance may be an alternative underlying mechanism,and it may provide a novel strategy for the prevention and treatment of asthma.

哮喘的特征是慢性气道炎症和气道高反应性。目前对哮喘治疗的认识是“可以控制,但不能治愈”。近年来,哮喘发病的“卫生假说”提出早期微生物的暴露可能对哮喘的发病起保护作用。传统的解释是微生物负荷增加可诱导免疫反应向Th1偏移。由于哮喘是由免疫耐受缺陷导致的疾病,因此诱导抗原特异性T细胞耐受可能是此假说的另一种解释,并有望因此为防治哮喘提供新的思路。

 
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