62 children who were born to HBV carriers and failed to respond to HBV vaccine and 44 children born to HBsAg negative mothers with normal response to HBV vaccine received the live attenuated HAV vaccine.

Conclusion:For the infants born to HBsAg positive mothers,the immune effect of these ones given 10μg at the first dose was well than those given 5μg at the first dose. For the infants born to HBsAg negative mothers,the 0,1,5,0,1,6 or 0,1,8 immunizing schedules were all feasible and it was very necessary to booster inoculate enfant four years old with rHB vaccine.

166 newborns whose mothers were HBsAg and/or HBeAg positive and 491 infants whose mothers had no HBV M were vaccinated with YRV of 5μg each dose by 0 1 6 or 0 1 2 month schedules.

The anti-HBs positive seroconversion rates in 0 1 6 group and 0 1 2 group(both were born from HBV M negative mothers)were 92.79% and 91.04% respectively at 6th month after three doses.

The newborns, HBsAg of whose mother were negative, infants aged 8 months and children aged 3-5 years. , whose HBVM were negative, were vaccinated with Hepatitis B (HB) vaccine prepared from plasma by 10 μg × 3 doses. After 1 month of vaccination, the positive rate of the anti- HBs was over 90% but that in newborns whose mother were not detected was 86%.

The risk of becoming HBsAg positive was about 20 times higher for infants born to HBsAg positive mothers than for infants born to HBsAg negative mothers (OR=18.9, 95% Ci=2.0-86.6).

Investigation of HBsAg carrier rate in 4,500 children and their mothers, conducted collaboratively in four provinces and cities, indicate that children born to HBsAg positive mothers ran significantly higher HBsAg positive risk than those born to HBsAg negative mothers, because of the synergism of horizontal and perinatal transmission. The conversion rate of HBsAg positive to negative were 11 out of 74 among HBsAg positive children born to HBsAg negative mothers, as compared to 1 out of 31 HBsAg positive children...

Investigation of HBsAg carrier rate in 4,500 children and their mothers, conducted collaboratively in four provinces and cities, indicate that children born to HBsAg positive mothers ran significantly higher HBsAg positive risk than those born to HBsAg negative mothers, because of the synergism of horizontal and perinatal transmission. The conversion rate of HBsAg positive to negative were 11 out of 74 among HBsAg positive children born to HBsAg negative mothers, as compared to 1 out of 31 HBsAg positive children born to HBsAg positive mothers. The chronic carrier rate ( 96.77% ) is higher in the latter than in the former group. The older the HBsAg positive children, the higher the conversion rate. However,the HBsAg chronic carriers of children of HBsAg positive mothers accounted for only 32.25% in the pool of carrier population. In other words, the weight of horizontal transmission is heavier than that of perinatal transmission. Obviously, when trying to block perinatal transmission we should also emphasize the necessity of preventing the horizontal transmission at the same time.

To determine the HBV infection in children aged 3-5 years in kinter-gardens, we examined 1,167 children in 7 seven day kindergartens of Zi-gong city, Sichuan Province, by HBV RIA kits from 1985-1986. The HBV prevalence rate was 41.13% and HBsAg positivity rate was 12.68%. Fifty per cent of the children of HBsAg positive mothers have HBsAg-antigenemia, compared to 9.97% in HBsAg negative mothers. The HBV infection rate per year in 448 HBV susceptibles was 12.95%, 3.79% of whom were HBsAg positive. The newly infected...

To determine the HBV infection in children aged 3-5 years in kinter-gardens, we examined 1,167 children in 7 seven day kindergartens of Zi-gong city, Sichuan Province, by HBV RIA kits from 1985-1986. The HBV prevalence rate was 41.13% and HBsAg positivity rate was 12.68%. Fifty per cent of the children of HBsAg positive mothers have HBsAg-antigenemia, compared to 9.97% in HBsAg negative mothers. The HBV infection rate per year in 448 HBV susceptibles was 12.95%, 3.79% of whom were HBsAg positive. The newly infected children were directly correlated to the numbers of HBsAg carriers present in the classes, P< 0.05.

From 1984 to 1990,in a village with 4,000 inhabitants,we investigated the HBV prevalence rate and HBsAg positive rates in children under two years of age in order to determine the prevalence of disinfection of syringes, acupuncture needle, and transfusion sets to HBV infection.The HBV prevalence rates and HBsAg positive rates were 39.4% and 20.9% respectively in one year old babies, and were 36.9% and 11.6% respectively in two years old babies. The village has two small out-patient clinics where five private...

From 1984 to 1990,in a village with 4,000 inhabitants,we investigated the HBV prevalence rate and HBsAg positive rates in children under two years of age in order to determine the prevalence of disinfection of syringes, acupuncture needle, and transfusion sets to HBV infection.The HBV prevalence rates and HBsAg positive rates were 39.4% and 20.9% respectively in one year old babies, and were 36.9% and 11.6% respectively in two years old babies. The village has two small out-patient clinics where five private practioners work. All of them were poorly equipped.The needles of syringe were generally used repeatedly on several patients or sometimes only the needles were changed without change of the syringe. Our study project was to send sterilize syringes, acupuncture needles and transfussion sets by the county anti-epidemic station weekly to the practioners and to enforce strictly the rate of one injection with one syringe and one needle. From 1987-1990 all new-boms and pregnant women were screened by RIA for HBV serologic markers. The results are as follows:One year after application of sterilization measures, the HBsAg of infants bron to HBsAg negative mothers dropped from 15.4% to 3.3%, a decrease in the rate of 78.6%, while in the children 2 years of age bron to HBsAg negative mothers, HBsAg dropped from 11.6% to 2.1%, a decrease of 76.4%. The difference was statistical significant, P<0.001. The results indicate that transmission of HBV in the population through the common usage of needles is one of the important factors in the transmission of HBV.