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  “(酶”译为未确定词的双语例句
     the best conditions of preparation with pepsin were: 4 ℃,m(pepsin)∶m(pig skin)=1∶50, 72hours;
     酶提取的最优条件为:4℃,m(酶)∶m(原料)=1∶50,72h;
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     Linear regression analysis showed that there was higher regression coefficient in aging group than the youth group (prohibition of Na+-K+-ATPase activity K=1.50,0.94,Ca2+ accumulation in mitochondria K=-7.43,-6.46).
     经直线回归分析发现,老龄鼠回归系数大于青年组(酶活性抑制K=1.50,0.94,线粒体内钙K=-7.43,-6.46)。
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     Five serum protein(enzyme) loci ( Akp, PI 2, Po 1, Po 2, Cp ) were used to analyze the genetic structure and genetic variation of six Chinese indigenous pig breeds.
     利用 5个多态蛋白 (酶 )位点碱性磷酸酶 (Akp)、蛋白酶抑制物 1(PI 1)、后白蛋白 1(Po 1)、后白蛋白2 (Po 2 )和铜蓝蛋白 (Cp)分析了清平猪、阳新猪、南阳黑猪、南城黑猪、东乡花猪、杭猪 6个地方猪品种的遗传结构和遗传变异。
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     In 9 goat populations,κ-CN,β-CN,α(s1)-CN,α(s2)-CN,β-Lg,SA and LDH 7 structural loci encoding milk protein(enzyme) took on different extent genetic polymorphism on PAGE gel.
     研究结果表明,9个山羊群体中,编码乳蛋白(酶)的-κCN,-βCN,sα1-CN,αs2-CN,-βLg,SA和LDH7个结构基因座在PAGE上均呈现出不同程度的遗传多态性;
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     Results indicate that the optimum conditions for carp protein enzymatic hydrolysis by subtilisin are as follows: the concentration of enzyme 0.12 g/kg, temperature 45℃, pH value 8.0, time 4 h. Under these conditions, the content of amino nitrogen in product increases by 23 times from 0.0017 g/L to 0.0414 g/L.
     结果表明枯草杆菌蛋白酶酶解鲤鱼蛋白的最佳酶解条件是酶用量(酶与底物浓度比,E/S)0.12g/kg,温度45℃,pH值8.0,在此条件下酶解鲤鱼4h,氨基态氮含量由0.0017g/L增加到0.0414g/L,增加了23倍;
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     Enzyme mimics
     模型
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     It couldn’t express in T.
     但该在T .
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     3.Immobilized enzyme technique;
     (3)固定化技术。
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     (2)decomposing PPIs;
     (2 )水解蛋白抑制素 ;
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  (enzyme
Recent research on guanidines has focused on enzyme systems such as xanthine oxidase and nitric oxide synthase.
      
PHENYLPYRUVIC ACID DERIVATIVES AS ENZYME INHIBITORS: THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL ON MACROPHAGE MIGRATION INHIBITORY FACTOR
      
The effect of the most promising ones have been looked on the counterparts from mammalian sources and difference in the susceptibility towards enzyme activity inhibition were noted.
      
Results revealed some definite correlation between the enzyme inhibition with GSH depletion in S.
      
In vitro enzyme inhibition studies have identified three inhibitors (14, 16, 23) of the falcipains with one (14) showing dual activity against both falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 and IC50 values of 6.6 and 29.4 μM, respectively.
      
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  (enzymatic
Chemo-Enzymatic Synthesis of Hexakis(6-O-allyl)cyclomaltohexaose
      
The enzymatic hydrolysates of casein are so complex that there is no effective method to do quantitative analysis.
      
Enzymatic hydrolysis of protein: Mechanism and kinetic model
      
The bioreaction mechanism and kinetic behavior of protein enzymatic hydrolysis for preparing active peptides were investigated to model and characterize the enzymatic hydrolysis curves.
      
The whole set of exponential kinetic equations can be used to model the bioreaction process of protein enzymatic hydrolysis, to calculate the thermodynamic and kinetic constants, and to optimize the operating parameters for bioreactor design.
      
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  (enzymes
INHIBITORS OF FILARIAL GAMMA-GLUTAMYL CYCLE ENZYMES AS POSSIBLE MACROFILARICIDAL AGENTS
      
The sensitivity of two γ-glutamyl cycle enzymes i.e.
      
Using the de novo design approach, several trisubstituted thiazole analogs were generated as potential inhibitors of these enzymes.
      
euphratica rapidly activated antioxidant enzymes after the onset of salt stress, which might reduce the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and the subsequent acceleration of lipid peroxide.
      
Thus, the antidotal enzymes and digestive enzymes in the midgut of the larvae were inhibited.
      
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(1) Sodium salt of reduced codehydrogenase I has been obtained in good yield as a dry powder from codehydrogenase I by reduction with alcohol and alcohol dehydrogenase. This preparation was stable for at least 5 months when kept dry at -15℃. (2) The properties of the particle-bound codehydrogenase I cytochrome reductase system in heart muscle preparation were found to differ considerably from those of the soluble enzyme as obtained by Mahler et al. Among other things, the affinity for cytochrome c of the particle-bound...

(1) Sodium salt of reduced codehydrogenase I has been obtained in good yield as a dry powder from codehydrogenase I by reduction with alcohol and alcohol dehydrogenase. This preparation was stable for at least 5 months when kept dry at -15℃. (2) The properties of the particle-bound codehydrogenase I cytochrome reductase system in heart muscle preparation were found to differ considerably from those of the soluble enzyme as obtained by Mahler et al. Among other things, the affinity for cytochrome c of the particle-bound enzyme is much greater than the soluble enzyme. The Michaelis constant for cytochrome c of the former is only one twelfth of that of the latter.(Fig. 2A). (3) With either oxygen or excess cytochrome c as electron acceptor, it was found that the overall activity, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption or cytochrome c reduction, when both succinate and reduced codehydrogenase I were oxidized simultanously, did not represent the sum of the rates of oxidation when these two substrates were separately oxidized but equalled only the faster of the two separate oxidation rates(Fig. 5, Tables 1, 2). If 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol was used as the electron acceptor, the overall rate of simultaneous oxidation of these two substrates was found to equal exactly the sum of the rates of separate oxidation(Table 3). (4) When either oxygen or excess cytochrome c was used as the electron acceptor, reduced codehydrogenase I and succinate each inhibited the rate of oxidation of the other(Figs 4, 6 & 7). Evidence has been presented to show that the inhibition of succinate oxidation by reduced codehydrogenase I is not due to the accumulation of oxaloacetate. (5) When malonate was also added to the reaction mixture, succinate no longer produced any inhibition of the oxidation of reduced codehydrogenase I(Fig. 8). (6) It is therefore concluded that in heart muscle preparation both succinate and reduced codehydrogenase I are oxidized by cytochrome c through a common, velocity limiting factor. This is in accordance with the view previously reached by some workers from studies on the action of certain inhibitors. However, it should be noted that in our experiments no agents which might produce any conceivable change in the colloidal structure of the enzyme system has been employed. (7) It should be emphasized that our results clearly show that great caution must be exercised in drawing conslusion on the role an enzyme might play in a complex enzyme system from studies of the properties of a solubilized enzyme. (8) It is believed that the competition of two enzyme systems for a common linking factor as demonstrated in this report has provided a new method for studies on the mutual relations of two or more enzyme systems.

(一)本報告提供了一個從輔Ⅰ,用還原法製備還原輔Ⅰ的方法。我們所製得的還原輔Ⅰ鈉鹽乾粉,可以在低温保存數月而不被氧化。 (二)與心肌製劑中顆粒相結合的輔Ⅰ細胞色素還原系,和用乙醇抽出的水溶性的輔Ⅰ細胞色素還原的性質頗不相同。其中比較重要的不同點是對於細胞色素c的親力,前者遠大於後者,其米氏常數僅約為後者的十二分之一。 (三)用一心肌顆粒製劑作為材料,無論用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體,還原輔Ⅰ與琥珀酸同時氧化時的總速度,不等於二者分別氧化時速度之和,而僅等於其中氧化較快者單獨氧化時之速度。但如用[2,6]二氯靛酚作為氫受體時,二者共同氧化時之總速度完全等於二者分別氧化時速度的和。 (四)當用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體時,琥珀酸與還原輔Ⅰ能彼此互相抑制對方氧化的速度。有足夠的實驗材料說明,還原輔Ⅰ對於琥珀酸氧化的抑制,不是由於草醯乙酸聚集的緣故。 (五)如果在反應混合物中同時含有琥珀酸脫氫的專一抑制劑,丙二酸,則琥珀酸對於還原輔酶$$...

(一)本報告提供了一個從輔Ⅰ,用還原法製備還原輔Ⅰ的方法。我們所製得的還原輔Ⅰ鈉鹽乾粉,可以在低温保存數月而不被氧化。 (二)與心肌製劑中顆粒相結合的輔Ⅰ細胞色素還原系,和用乙醇抽出的水溶性的輔Ⅰ細胞色素還原的性質頗不相同。其中比較重要的不同點是對於細胞色素c的親力,前者遠大於後者,其米氏常數僅約為後者的十二分之一。 (三)用一心肌顆粒製劑作為材料,無論用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體,還原輔Ⅰ與琥珀酸同時氧化時的總速度,不等於二者分別氧化時速度之和,而僅等於其中氧化較快者單獨氧化時之速度。但如用[2,6]二氯靛酚作為氫受體時,二者共同氧化時之總速度完全等於二者分別氧化時速度的和。 (四)當用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體時,琥珀酸與還原輔Ⅰ能彼此互相抑制對方氧化的速度。有足夠的實驗材料說明,還原輔Ⅰ對於琥珀酸氧化的抑制,不是由於草醯乙酸聚集的緣故。 (五)如果在反應混合物中同時含有琥珀酸脫氫的專一抑制劑,丙二酸,則琥珀酸對於還原輔Ⅰ氧化作用的抑制即被解除。 (六)根據以上的實驗結果,可以認為,還原輔Ⅰ及琥珀酸先通過一個共同的因子與細胞色素c作用。這個共同的因子在一般情形之下,也是這兩個系統的速度限制因子。應該指出在我們的實驗中,並未使用任何可能影響系統結構的條件,因此我們的結果是在一個比較接近於生理狀態的情形之下獲得的。 (七)應該着重指出,從本報告的結果可以看到,一個用人為的方法從複雜系上溶解下來的的性質,有時並不能代表這個在有組織的系統中的真實情况。 (八)我們相信,本報告所說明的兩系競爭一個共同因子的一些現象,將为研究複雜系之間的相互關係,提供一個新的方法。

(1) Cytochrome c containing 0.43% iron has been obtained from beef, pig or horse heart muscles by direct adsorption of the neutralized trichloroacetic acid extracts of heart muscle on the cation exchanger"synthetic zeolite" followed by elution with 3.84 M ammonium sulfate and precipitation with 20% trichloroacetic acid. This provides a simple method for large-scale preparation of pure cytochrome c. (2) The ratio of optical densities at 550 mμ(reduced) and 278 mμ of 0.43% iron cytochrome c varies, with its degree...

(1) Cytochrome c containing 0.43% iron has been obtained from beef, pig or horse heart muscles by direct adsorption of the neutralized trichloroacetic acid extracts of heart muscle on the cation exchanger"synthetic zeolite" followed by elution with 3.84 M ammonium sulfate and precipitation with 20% trichloroacetic acid. This provides a simple method for large-scale preparation of pure cytochrome c. (2) The ratio of optical densities at 550 mμ(reduced) and 278 mμ of 0.43% iron cytochrome c varies, with its degree of reduction, from 1.13 to 1.26. The average ratio of our preparations is 1.23. (3) The absorption spectra(230-600 mμ) of oxidized and reduced cytochrome c have been measured. The molecular extinction coefficient at 550 mμ of oxidized, 0.43% iron, cytochrome c is 0.80×10~4. This value differs considerably from that reported in the literature. (4) Some enzymic properties of cytochrome c containing 0.43% iron are compared with those of a preparation containing 0.34% iron and are found to be identical. Both can be converted into''endogenous" cytochrome c. (5) Whether pure cytochrome c contains more than 0.43% iron has been discussed. It seems that no convincing evidence has been presented to show that cytochrome c preparations with iron content higher than 0.43% as obtained by some workers do not contain a small amount of iron-rich impurity.

(一)用陽離子交换劑(synthetic zeolite)直接吸附高等動物心肌抽提液一次,並用3.84M硫酸銨作洗脫劑,即可製得含鐵量0.43%的細胞色素c。因此提供了一個大量製備純細胞色素c的簡單方法。 (二)含鐵量0.43%的細胞色素c,它的550mμ和278mμ光密度的比值,視產品的還原程度而定,其範圍從1.13到1.26,我們所製得的產品,其比值在1.23左右。 (三)我們测量了氧化及還原的細胞色素c(含鐵0.43%)從230mμ到600mμ的吸收光譜,並發現和前人所報告的略有不同。氧化細胞色素c在550mμ的消光係數為0.80×10~4,此值與文獻上的數值相差很多。 (四)我們比較了含鐵量0.43%的細胞色素c和含鐵量0.34%的細胞色素c的一些性質,證明他們是相同的;並且兩者都可以變成“內源”細胞色素c。 (五)我們認為現有的實驗證據不足以說明純細胞色素c的含鐵量大於0.43%。

Although the occurence of a coenzyme I-independant, particle-bound α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle of higher animals has long been recognized, little is known about its relation to the cytochrome system. Green has found that it is linked to cytochrome c but details of the electron transporting pathway has remained obscure. This problem has now been studied using the method of simultaneous action of two or more enzyme systems as described previously. Enzyme preparation obtained from thoroughly...

Although the occurence of a coenzyme I-independant, particle-bound α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle of higher animals has long been recognized, little is known about its relation to the cytochrome system. Green has found that it is linked to cytochrome c but details of the electron transporting pathway has remained obscure. This problem has now been studied using the method of simultaneous action of two or more enzyme systems as described previously. Enzyme preparation obtained from thoroughly washed rabbit muscle mince has been employed in the present investigation. It has been found that in the presence of the rabbit muscle enzyme preparation, succinate and α-glycerophosphate each interferes with the rate of oxidation of the other when they are oxidized simultaneously. The inhibition of α-glycerophosphate oxidase by succinate can be reversed by the addition of pyrophosphate, a powerful inhibitor of succinic dehydrogenase. With cytochrome c as electron acceptor, the overall rate of simultaneous oxidation of α-glycerophosphate, succinate and reduced coenzyme I (CoIH) does not represent the sum of the rates of their separate oxidation, but corresponds only to the highest of the three rates, i.e. the rate of oxidation of CoIH. It is, therefore, believed that the α-glycerophosphate-, succinate- and CoIH-cytochrome c reductase systems have a common, velocity limiting electron carrier which is most probably the linking factor first proposed by Slater. In agreement with this conclusion, the α-glycerophosphate oxidase of rabbit muscle preparation has been found to be sensitive to the action of 2,3-dimercaptopropanol. Using 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, as acceptor, the overall rate of the simultaneous oxidation of succinate and α-glycerophosphate equals exacdy to the sum of the rates of their separate oxidation. Similar results have also been obtained even in presence of phenylurethane, which markedly inhibits the activity of succinic dehydrogenase and does not affect the activity of α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. These facts suggest that cytochrome b is not involved in the oxidation of α-glycerophosphate in rabbit muscle preparation. The pathway of hydrogen or electron transfer of the particulate α-glycerophosphate oxidase system may, therefore, be represented as follow: (See also Fig. 4)

(一) 在經徹底冲洗的兔骨骼肌製劑中,[L-α]甘油磷酸和琥珀酸的氧化彼此干涉。琥珀酸對[L-α]甘油磷酸氧化的抑制作用能因加入抑制琥珀酸脫氫的焦磷酸而解除。 (二) 當用細胞色素c作受體時[L-α]甘油磷酸,還原輔I和琥珀酸三者同時氧化時總氧化速度僅相當其中氧化速度最高者即還原輔I單獨氧化的速度。[L-α]甘油磷酸氧化系也因[2,3]二氫硫基丙醇的處理而失效。 (三) 當用[2,6]二氯酚靛酚作受體時[L-α]甘油磷酸和琥珀酸同時氧化時速度完全等於二底料單獨氧化時速度的和。[L-α]甘油磷酸的氧化不受苯代氨甲酸乙酯的影響。 (四) 本文結果說明[L-α]甘油磷酸的氧化不通過細胞色素b而通過中間因子和細胞色素c連接。

 
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