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冷干     
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  cold-dry
     In correspondence,four climatic periods went through in this region since(2 200 a B.P.,)namely cold-dry((2 045±70)a B.P.~(2 195±70)a B.P.)
     相应地,该区气候经历了四个时期,即冷干((2 045±70)B.P.) ~(2 195±70)a B.P.
短句来源
     was a large warm stage, and during which four paleosol layers were developed and climate fluctuation has assumed 4~5 small cold-humid and cold-dry alternations. Since 5.4 ka B.P. , the lakes tended to gradually shrink;
     为大暖期,发育了4层古土壤,其间有4~5次小的冷湿或冷干的波动,5.4 ka B.P.
短句来源
     , a general trend of the region was to change into a warm-dry and cold-dry environment.
     以后总的趋势是向干旱变化,为暖干与冷干环境。
短句来源
     At about 5kaBP, the climate changed from warm-humid to cold-dry. 
     大约在5kaBP,高原气候由暖湿向冷干转变。
短句来源
     The results indicated that the climate of Ningxia has undergone the cold-wet period,the cold-dry period and the warm-dry period in recent 40 years;
     结果表明:近40多年来,宁夏大致经历了冷湿期、冷干期、暖干期;
短句来源
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  cold dry
     →warm wet,lake expand(2 150~2 360 aB.P.) →cold wet to cold dry,lake shrink(1 630~2 150 aB.P.)
     →冷湿向冷干转换 ,湖泊由大湖开始菱缩 (2 1 2 0~ 1 6 0 0aB .P .)
短句来源
     (3) The cold dry trend after 3.5kaB.P. . The climate changed in the quasi period of 800 years with 300 years relative steady warm and 500 years strong oscillation.
     3.5kaB.P.以来冷干趋势之上叠加着大致由300a稳定与500a波动构成的约800a的周期性变化。
短句来源
     , corresponding to MIS2, the δ 18 O values were higher than the average, the climate was cold dry and less rainy, which was consistent to the background of the maximum stage of the last glacial period;
     P . 相当于深海氧同位素 2阶段 ,该阶段δ18O平均值高于全阶段的平均值 ,气候冷干少雨 ,对应于末次盛冰期 ;
短句来源
     The environmental multiproxies indicated the cold humid climate, rather than cold dry climate in the early stage of the Little Ice Age(LIA).
     揭示了本区现代小冰期的前期冷湿 ,后期冷干的气候特征。
短句来源
     ,the paleoclimate was changed from cold dry to warm dry and companyed with the intensified eolian sand activity, lightened peat development and low lake level.
     呼伦湖地区气候由冷干向暖干变化 ,伴随风沙活动加强、泥炭发育缓慢和低湖面环境演化特征。
短句来源
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  cold and dry
     During 4.0 and 2.2 kaBP,the δ~(13)Corg average value is-22.8‰(obviously positive),which indicates that the climate was quite cold and dry after 4.0 kaBP.
     4.0~2.2 kaBP,δ13Corg值明显偏正,指示气候变为冷干,全新世大暖期结束。
短句来源
     The warm and wet climate would benefit the agriculture production with an average increase of crop yield by 8.0% to 9.6%,while the cold and dry climate would have an adverse impact on agriculture production with an average decrease of crop yield by 8.6% to 10.4%.
     从设定的情景可以看出,“暖湿型”气候对农业的生产是有利的,平均增产幅度约8.0~9.6%,而“冷干型”气候最不利于农业生产,平均减产幅度约-10.4%~-8.6%。
短句来源
     6070 -4600 aBP,cold and dry;
     6000-4600 aBP为相对冷干时期;
短句来源
     and cold and dry climate in 220~130 aB.P.
     2 2 0~ 130 a B.P. 为冷干气候 ;
短句来源
     a cold and dry climatic environment occurred at 6.31-4.97 ka , which reached a culmination at 5.78 ka;
     6.31~4.97kaB.P. 为冷干气候环境,在5.78kaB.P.
短句来源
更多       
  cool-dry
     The evolution sequenses of climate from the bottom to top layer are:cold-dry, temperate with slight cool-dry,temperate wetness,hot wetness, temperate with slight dry.
     气候演化为:冷干→温暖略干→温暖湿润→炎热潮湿→温暖略干。
短句来源
     The evolution sequenses of climate from the bottom to top layer are: cold-dry, temperate with slight cool-dry, temperate wetness, hot wetness, temperate with slight dry.
     气候演化为:冷干→温暖略干→温暖湿润→炎热潮湿→温暖略干。
短句来源
     Soil erosion was also effected by climate, whether in cool-dry or in warm-wet period of Holocene soil erosion all existed, but the thickness of erosion was bigger obviously in cool-dry period than that in warm-wet period.
     气候对土壤也有明显的影响,无论是在全新世冷干期,还是在全新世温湿期,都存在着土壤侵蚀,但冷干期侵蚀厚度比温湿期显著大,前者侵蚀厚度比后者大7倍多。
短句来源
     3. Analyzing the variations of the water nutrition, temperature, level andtransparence, the climatic changes experienced three intervals at this area during31.5-10 ka period, showing the variations of hot-humid in late MIS3 to cool-dry inLGM, back to hot-humid in last deglaciation, with short cool-dry fluctuation in thelast one.
     3、通过分析硅藻所反应的水体营养型、水温、水位、透光度等环境因子的变化,分析了3个组合带对应时期古气候演化过程,揭示出该地区MIS3晚期热湿-末次冰盛期冷干—末次冰消期暖湿,在末次冰消期暖湿气候中还伴有冷干波动事件的气候变化特点。
短句来源
     According to the studies of lacustrine sediments, there occur two Holocene climatic models, cool-dry/ warm-wetter model and cool-wetter/ warm-dry modelin Mongolia, bordered by Hangai Mountain, suggesting the complex of Mongolian Holocene climate changes.
     蒙古的湖泊研究显示蒙古全新世气候演化存在 2种模式,即冷干—暖湿型和冷湿—暖干型,这 2种模式以杭爱山为分界线。
短句来源
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      cold-dry
    The magnetic susceptibility curve indicates 33 cold-dry and humid-warm cycles of paleoclimatic variation in the Qinling Mountains during the last 2.48 Ma.
          
    Four palmar conditions were also identified: warm-wet in 26 patients, warm-dry in seven, cold-wet in seven, and cold-dry in four.
          
    The other two types of SSR were evently distributed among patients, except those with cold-dry palms, who only had absent responses.
          
    Cold-wet events (14 times) are less than cold-dry ones (16 times), while warm-wet events (10 times) are more than warm-dry ones (4 times).
          
    "Cold-dry" combination favors the dust arising, and results in higher EC and OH- values, while "warm-wet" combination prevents dust form and EC and OH- values are lower.
          
    更多          
      cold dry
    Major white laminations appear in 0 AD, 500 AD, 700 AD, 900 AD, 1 350 AD, 1 500 AD, etc., and correspond to the periods of cold/dry and frequent dust storms from the historical and natural records of China or Peru.
          
    seemed to correspond to the later part of the Holocene Megathermal, and the cold/dry period during 0-2.2 ka B.
          
    To slightly less warm moist, cool-dry, slight-warmer-moister of the Pliocene; later the cool to cold dry periods alternated frequently with the mild semiarid and semi-moist periods of the Quatemary.
          
    Cool or cold dry and slightly warm semiarid and semi-moist climates alternated on a generally cool-dry background.
          
    SST forcing dominates with a positive wind-evaporation feedback during the transition to the cold/dry season.
          
    更多          
      cold and dry
    Prior to 16 kaBP, the region was a desert-steppe characterized by cold and dry climates, the January temperature was 7 -10°C lower than that of present and the annual precipitation only accounted for 40% of the present.
          
    The climate turned cold and dry after 1 320 AD and this indicated the onset of the Little Ice Age.
          
    After that, the climate gradually became cold and dry.
          
    By analyses of all the climatic records of ice cores and tree rings from the northern Tibetan Plateau, it was revealed that dust events were more frequent in the cold and dry periods than in the warm and wet periods.
          
    Since 23 ka B.P., the vegetation was dominated by steppe-desert steppe under a cold and dry condition, and entered the Last Glacial Maximum dominated by desert steppe.
          
    更多          
      cool-dry
    This indicates that this area is sensitive to global changes.2.Over the past 8 000 years, Caohai District is typical of the warm-moist-cool-dry climate.
          
    cold period (11 095-9 970 aBP)→ temperate period (9 970-9 870 aBP) → Anathermal (9 870-9 770 aBP)→ cool-dry period (9 770-8 740 aBP) → super-megathermal (8 740-8 590 aBP)→ Megathermal (8 590-5 970 aBP).
          
    During the Holocene, cool-dry and temperate-dry climates resulted in apparent alluvial-fluvial and weak aeolian activities.
          
    To slightly less warm moist, cool-dry, slight-warmer-moister of the Pliocene; later the cool to cold dry periods alternated frequently with the mild semiarid and semi-moist periods of the Quatemary.
          
    Cool or cold dry and slightly warm semiarid and semi-moist climates alternated on a generally cool-dry background.
          
    更多          


    An experimental comparison of bone grafts was performed on rabbits. The progress of grafts was studied roentgenologically, microangiographically and histologically. The healing process of different grafts was compared, the role of blood vessels in "creeping substitution" and the types of new bone formation were discussed. Evaluation of graft healing was made with microangioraphic studies. Results showed that fresh autograft was the best and fresh homograft also fair. Among preserved bone grafts, decalcified...

    An experimental comparison of bone grafts was performed on rabbits. The progress of grafts was studied roentgenologically, microangiographically and histologically. The healing process of different grafts was compared, the role of blood vessels in "creeping substitution" and the types of new bone formation were discussed. Evaluation of graft healing was made with microangioraphic studies. Results showed that fresh autograft was the best and fresh homograft also fair. Among preserved bone grafts, decalcified homograft was the best, freeze-dried homograft fair, deproteinised homograft poor and freeze-dried heterograft hopeless.

    作者根据X线相显示植骨愈合、微血管造影呈移植骨内血管重建以及组织学检查植骨后成骨效应等所见,对各种骨移植的实验结果作了比较,以新鲜自体骨为最好;新鲜同种骨次之。在储骨移植中,以同种脱钙骨较优,同种冷干骨次之,同种脱有机质骨较差,而异种冷干骨最劣。

    The late Late Pleistocene sediments in the continental shelf consist of two continental facies beds and a marine facies bed.The lower continental facies bedcontains Pediastrum-Zygnema-Desmidiaceae-Concentricystes algal assemblage and Abies-Picea-Pinus-Cyperaceae-Artemisia palynological assemblage, showing that the climate was cold and wet, sea level lowering, and the continental shelf of the Dong Hai exposed as the plain dotted with many lakes and swamps in which lived many fresh water algae of Pediastrum,Zygnema,...

    The late Late Pleistocene sediments in the continental shelf consist of two continental facies beds and a marine facies bed.The lower continental facies bedcontains Pediastrum-Zygnema-Desmidiaceae-Concentricystes algal assemblage and Abies-Picea-Pinus-Cyperaceae-Artemisia palynological assemblage, showing that the climate was cold and wet, sea level lowering, and the continental shelf of the Dong Hai exposed as the plain dotted with many lakes and swamps in which lived many fresh water algae of Pediastrum,Zygnema, Eesmidiaceae ard Concen-tricystes.The middle marine facies bed contains Conscinodiscus-Dictyccha-Hystri-chosphaera-Gonyaulax algal assemblage coexisted with Pinus-Quercus-Cupressace-ae Artemisia-Cyperaceae palynological assemblage, indicating the climate warm and wet, sea level rising, and the Dorg Hai submerged by sea water with various species cf diatom, Dictyocha, Gonyaulax and Histrichosphaera, The upper continental facies bed contains Pediastrum-Zygnema-Concentricystes- Desm-idiaceae algal assemblage and Cupressaceae-Pinus-Abies-Gramineae-Artemisia palynological assemblage, reflecting the climate was cold and dry, sea level lowering greatly,the continental shelf cf the Dong Hai exposed as the plain again, and the ancient Yellow River and Yangtze River converging and flowing down to the trench through the continental shelf.The landscape cf the continental shelf at that time is similar to the lower reach plain of the Yangtze River cf today and equal to that of the lower continental bed.Based on the C14 test and the analysis of algal and palynological assemblages it could be inferred that the lower continental facies ted is equal to Ⅰ phase of Wurm of the Late Pleistocene, the middle marine facies bed equal to sub-interglacial of Wiirm and the upper continental facies bed equal to Ⅱ phase of Wurm.

    东海陆架区更新世晚期沉积为二层陆相层及一层海相层。下部陆相层含盘星藻-双星藻-鼓藻-环纹藻组合,共生的孢粉化石为Abies-Picea-Pinus Cyperaceae-Artemisia孢粉组合,反映当时气候冷湿、海面下降、东海陆架出露成为东海平原,平原上有众多的湖沼分布,其中生长着盘星藻、双星藻、鼓藻、环纹藻等淡水藻类。中部海相层含圆筛藻-硅鞭藻-刺球藻-旋沟藻组合,共生孢粉化石为Pinus-QuercusCupressaceae-Artemisia-Cyperaceae组合,反映气候暖湿、海面回升、发生海侵,东海复被海水淹没,海区生活着各种硅藻和硅鞭藻、刺球藻、旋沟藻。上部陆相层含盘星藻-双星藻-环纹藻-鼓藻组合,共生孢粉化石为Cupressaceae-Pinus-Abies-Gramineae-Artemisia组合,反映冷干气候,海面大幅度下降,东海陆架再度出露成为东海平原,古黄河、长江汇集穿越大陆架而汇入海槽。当时陆架平原景观类似于今日长江下游平原。 根据C~14龄测定与藻类、孢粉化石组合推断,下部陆相层相当晚更新世的武术Ⅰ期,中部海相层相当于武木亚间冰期,上部陆相层相当于武木Ⅱ期。

    Seven cases have been selected to analyze the occurrence conditions of large area hailfalls ahead of cold front over Zhejiang. It is found that large potential instability energy and strong boundary layer convergence must exist prior to the occurrence of the hail events, however, strong vertical wind shear is not necessary. The results of computation show that large scale convergence and asending motion are not necessarily to occure in the middle and lower troposphere during the 6-12h in advance of hailfall...

    Seven cases have been selected to analyze the occurrence conditions of large area hailfalls ahead of cold front over Zhejiang. It is found that large potential instability energy and strong boundary layer convergence must exist prior to the occurrence of the hail events, however, strong vertical wind shear is not necessary. The results of computation show that large scale convergence and asending motion are not necessarily to occure in the middle and lower troposphere during the 6-12h in advance of hailfall occurrence. The warm, moist air in boundary layer is very vigorous, but the behavior of cold, dry air is weaker before hail occurrence. The investigation suggests that the formation of instability energy is mainly due to the warm, moist air advection in boundary layer. The difference between the vertical profiles of moisture flux divergence in the hail events and those in heavy rainfalls has been found. In the hail cases, the moisture convergences are almost concentracted in the boundary layer. Probably, it is a effective information for predicting the occurrence of hailfall ahead of cold front to combine four factors: the latent instability, the convective instability, the boundary layer convergence and the location of cold front.

    本文选取了7个实例,分析冷锋前浙江大范围冰雹天气的发生条件。大范围冰雹天气发生前,必须具有较大的位势不稳定能和较强的边界层辐合。强的风速垂直切变并不是必要条件。冰雹天气发生前6—12小时,对流层中、下部不一定有大尺度辐合上升。冰雹发生之前,边界层内暖湿空气十分强盛,而中层的冷干空气活动一般并不明显。因此不稳定能的形成主要是由于边界层内暖湿平流的结果。冰雹天气过程的水汽通量散度,与一般暴雨过程不同,前者的水汽辐合几乎全部集中在边界层内。冷锋位置、边界层辐合线、潜在不稳定度和对流不稳定度这四个因子相结合,可能是预报冷锋前有无大范围冰雹天气发生的有效信息。

     
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