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社会历史
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  society history
     On China's Civil Society: History Review and Realistic Building
     论中国的市民社会:历史考察与现实建构
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     The Fixed Position of the History of “Xiao Kang Society”
     “小康社会”的历史定位
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     A Study of the Social History's Progress
     论社会历史进步
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“Cai”, a Timber menber with certain length width and thickness, is derided into eight classes.“Fen” means to devid the Timber menber's thickness into 15 epual parts and take 10 out of them as its width.For each class of "cai', a certain section size is defined, and one fifteenth of its thickness is defined as a Fen°. this is shown in list 1. in which the relation between width and thickness. W=2/3d. happens to coincide with the strength repuest of modern mechanics.? During different times since Qin and Han dynasties,...

“Cai”, a Timber menber with certain length width and thickness, is derided into eight classes.“Fen” means to devid the Timber menber's thickness into 15 epual parts and take 10 out of them as its width.For each class of "cai', a certain section size is defined, and one fifteenth of its thickness is defined as a Fen°. this is shown in list 1. in which the relation between width and thickness. W=2/3d. happens to coincide with the strength repuest of modern mechanics.? During different times since Qin and Han dynasties, the proportion of thicleness to width of cai usually depended on the concepts of mathematical phylosophy prevailing at that time, so differed from one dynasty to another. It was not until Song dynasty that the proportion was defined to 3∶2. as it is shown in list 1. It is advisable to point out that another mathematical phylosophy of 3 and 5 from Huai Nan Ei is also included in the proprtion as shown in list 2:The paper also discusses the developments of Cai Fen°. its social historical causes. and the Qin Han vestige unearthed in 1975 in canton as an important example of Cai.?In ancient times, china might be the only country in the world that had Cai Fen system, which should be considered one of the brilliant achievements in the world's architectural history.[1] Eight classes of Cai is equal to the “Five Classical Orders” in ancient Rome and ancient Greece.[2] Refer to “Ying Zao Fa Shi” written by Li Jie in Song dynasty:[3] A unite of length which came into use sinee Song dynasty. So it also called Song chi.A Song chi is equal to 32 centimetre;A Cun = 1/10 Chi; A Fen = 1/10 Cun;[4]Cai Fen° is equal to “Module” in ancient European architecture. Cai means timber menber and Fen° A part.

材是一条直横长有一定尺寸的木材,材有八等.分°是各以其材之广分为15分°,以10分°为其厚,每等材都规定一个剖面尺寸及材高的1/15为1分°见表一:表一??其中,W=2/3d与现代力学强度的要求不谋而合.自秦汉以来,各代的材高与材厚比例往往取决于当时的数理哲学概念,因而往往不同,到宋朝才统一为3:2,如表一所示.值得指出的是,此比例中还包含了淮南子的3:5哲学概念,这可以从表二看出. 表二?本文还论述了材分°④的发展及其发展的社会历史原因,列举了1975年出土的广州的秦汉遗址,作为一个材的重要实例.在古代,恐怕只有中国有材分°制度.这个制度应是世界建筑史上的辉煌成就之一.

The fact that Comrade Mao Zedang became the greatest national hero as well as the great leader and teacher of the Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese people is, fundamentally speaking determinid by the social and historical conditions and the protracted revolutionary struggles waged by the whole party and the whole people, heavily dependent on his personal merits.Comradeu Mao Zedong had two outstanding qualities: his wholehearted service to the people and his seeking-trufh-from-facts style of work. In commemaration...

The fact that Comrade Mao Zedang became the greatest national hero as well as the great leader and teacher of the Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese people is, fundamentally speaking determinid by the social and historical conditions and the protracted revolutionary struggles waged by the whole party and the whole people, heavily dependent on his personal merits.Comradeu Mao Zedong had two outstanding qualities: his wholehearted service to the people and his seeking-trufh-from-facts style of work. In commemaration of the 90th anniversary of his birthday, we should learn from his thorough revolutionary spirit displayed in his lifelong heroic struggle for the victory of the liberation of the Chinese people and the cause of communism, adhere to the priciple of integrating the universal truth of Marxism-Leninism with the concrete practice of the Chinese Communist Party, strive to build socialism with Chinese characteristics and make China a highly demoeratic and culturally advancad modern socialist country.

毛泽东同志成为我们党和我国人民伟大的领袖和导师,成为中华民族历史上最伟大的民族英雄,从根本上说,是由社会历史条件和全党、全国人民的长期革命斗争决定的,同时又是和他本人的主观努力分不开的。毛泽东同志有两个突出的优点,一是全心全意为人民服务,一是实事求是。我们纪念毛泽东同志诞生九十周年,就是要学习毛泽东同志为中国人民的解放和共产主义事业的胜利而英勇奋斗一生的彻底革命精神,坚持他倡导的把马克思列宁主义的普遍真理同中国革命的具体实践相结合的原则,在党中央的领导下,为建设有中国特色的社会主义,为把我国建设成为现代化的,高度文明、高度民主的社会主义国家而奋斗。

Between the second century B. C. and the first century A. D., the messengers of the Hun dynasty had successfully made several voyages to the Asia and Indian Ocean. In connection with the problems of geographical position where the messengers had arrived and the conditions of ship used in that time, there exists various points of view and keeps a sharp disagreement. Now, depending on the historical events, espe cially from the nautical history of China; and considering the social and geographical situation of...

Between the second century B. C. and the first century A. D., the messengers of the Hun dynasty had successfully made several voyages to the Asia and Indian Ocean. In connection with the problems of geographical position where the messengers had arrived and the conditions of ship used in that time, there exists various points of view and keeps a sharp disagreement. Now, depending on the historical events, espe cially from the nautical history of China; and considering the social and geographical situation of various nations, as well as the meteorogical information of navigation area and the nautical and ship's conditions at that time; the author suggests some conclusions as following.All ships used for navigation to and from were built by Chinese; those ships might maintain navigational ability for ocean voyage but not more than five months in continuous navigation, and it was not the actual running time; the navigators of the Han dynasty had utilized the seasonal wind for navigation to cross a gulf and successfully in fulfilling the plan. As for the right name of the nations or ports where the navigators reached, Du-Yuan Guo is located around Singapore; Yilumei Guo, Chenli Guo, Fugandoulu Guo are between the downstream and midstream of Irrawaddy River and the west coast of Burma; Huang-Zhi Guo is Vijayawada of the southeast coast of India; Pi-Zong, where the messengers of the Han dynasty reached on their voyage home by Yichenbu Guo (Sri Lanka), is Pattani, at the east coast of Malaya; Rinan Xiangling, the terminal of the voyage is somewhere about south Da Nang, Vietnam.

公元前二世纪至公元一世纪间,汉使远航南洋、印度洋的航线、所经各国位置及船舶等问题,是在学术界争论和分歧很多的问题。作者根据史籍的记载,以航海史学为主,结合各国社会历史地理状况,航区的气象规律,航海、船舶的条件等进行探讨,提出一些论证和见解。主要的考释结果是:汉使来回所乘均系本国船舶;汉使船舶具有远洋航海的条件和能力,但不能作长达五个月的不着陆连续航行,它的航程时间不是纯航行时间;汉代航海家能利用季风作横越海湾的航行和及时完成各段航程。汉使所达各国中,都元国应在今新加坡一带;邑卢没、谌离、夫甘都卢三国应在今缅甸伊洛瓦底江下游、中游和西部滨海地区;黄支国应在今印度东南沿海之维查雅瓦达一带;汉使回程经已程不国(今斯里兰卡)所至之皮宗,应为今马来半岛东岸之北大年,随后回至日南象林(今越南岘港南)。

 
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