The diodes have the configuration of ITO/PEDOT/MEH-PPV/Ba/Al. The experiments showed that there is an ohmic contact between electrodes and MEH-PPV, and holes and electrons injected from the cathodes are unbalanced. Charged traps in the MEH-PPV result in space-charge under positive bias, and the trap concentration was estimated at about 3.75×10~ 16 cm~ -3 .
Ba-sed on the assumption of the exponential distribution of the gap state density,we obtained the characteristic temperature T_t,the trapping parameterNt (both discribing the gap state property),and finally the gap state density N(E)from the non-linear I-V curve,The value of N(E_F)obtained inthis way is about 2x1O~(15)/cm~3,ev.
按隙态的指数分布由超线性 I～V 曲线确定出描述隙态的特征温度 Tt 和陷阱参量 Nt 从而测得 N(E),我们得到 N(E_F)约为2×10~(15)/Cm~3·ev.
A new dielectric loss peak was found near by 2MHz at room temperature for the sample in the absence of Bi2O3, the corresponding electron trapping level was about 0.18 eV, it was considered that the loss peak resulted from intrinsicdefect Zni .
The trapped depths were acquired by fitting the experimental results with general order kinetic model. The results suggested that the sample containing Ti in 2.5%,which was compared with the sample containing Ti in 0.5% and 0.8%,possessed many traps with befitting depths.
Whereas in the heating of BGO, the trapped electrons absorb heat energy and escape from the trapping centers of impurities, recombining with holes in valence band or recombination centers and giving off TL light with the disappearance of the colour centers.
It is observed that when the nitridation degree is the lighter, with the increasing of the nirridation time the effective electron trap surface concentration in the films increases rapidly, and the detrapping ratio of trapped electrons is almost zero and independent of the shorting time for samples and the strength (until 8MV/cm) and duration of application of external reverse field, and the depth of the electron trap level is the deeper;
when the nitridation degree is the heavier with the further increasing of the nitridation time the effective electron trap surface concentration decreases and the depth of electron trap level becomes shallow gradually, and the detrapping ratio of trapped electrons gradually increases and is approximately dependent exponentially on the strength and duration of time application of external reverse field and is almost independent of the shorting time for the samples.
It is found that in the range approaching the field of breakdown, the electrons in the conduction band will collide with the trapped, resulting in the trapped electrons detrapping. Once the detrapping reaches a certain value, breakdown occurs.
The results indicate that the original number of OSL traps that have captured electroncs is linearly related with the sum of TL decay during the OSL process.
Pool elements, such as preservation conditions, traps and migration paths, and reservoir rocks and facies, also served as important control factors to marine gas pools in South China.
We have used a direct method for free radical detection, EPR of spin trapping, and the following spin traps: N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN) and α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxyl)-N-tert-butylnitrone (4-POBN).
The study of the rate of generation by pea mitochondria using EPR spin traps and epinephrine oxidation showed that H2O2 accumulation can be accounted for by a significant increase in the rate of production.
Local Radiation Belts of the Sun (Quasi-Stationary Coronal and Heliospheric Giant Traps for Solar Cosmic Rays)
4000 aBP, Dongting Basin and the lower Changjiang valley trapped sediments in great amounts like in the river mouth.
Short-termin vivo exposure of mouse skin to cumene hydroperoxide (Cum-OOH) causes severe oxidative stress and formation of spin-trapped radical adducts.
In some bacteria, the inner membrane is invaginated, so that the "ejected " pro tons get trapped in the closed space of such intracellular membrane "sacks" which can be round or flat.
Resistance of native SOD to inactivation by H2O2 and the effect of applying SOD-CMC hydrogels to open wounds of rats' back skin were examined and compared to that of SOD trapped into CMC50% and CMC90% hydrogels.
The absorption coefficient of cluster systems with trapped N2O molecules increases at low frequencies and decays at frequencies ω >amp;gt; 500 cm-1.