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     The K Ar age and the strength of ESR signal of oxygen vacancies in the quartz of the 2 granite samples (Upper Permian intrusive) are measured firstly.
     首先测定2块花岗岩(上二叠统侵入岩)样品的KAr年龄和石英氧空位ESR信号强度;
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     This paPER presents the studies on the relativitiesbetween the death rate of cancer of the liver and the types ofrock(magnatic roak,metamorphic rock,carbonate rock,clasticrock,red clastic rock and friable rock of quaternary system)inthe living areas of people by means of the information of rocktypes with 1092 data and the investigations of 1544 examplesabout the death of cancer of the liver.
     利用岩石类型资料1092个数据,肝癌死亡调查资料1544例,研究了肝癌死亡率与人群生存区的岩石类型(岩浆岩、变质岩、碳酸盐岩、碎屑岩、红色碎屑岩、第四系松散岩)的相关性。
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     The U - Pb isotopic ages of 585 Ma and 509 Ma for two groups of zircons from metamorphosed granites that emplaced into the Foziling Group in the eastern section of Beihuaiyang suggest that the Xiaoxihe gneiss suite contains the Caledonian intrusion and the Foziling (Rock)Group formed in the Precambrian.
     采自侵入北淮阳东段佛子岭(岩)群的变花岗岩中两组锆石U-Pb同位素年龄分别为585Ma和509Ma。 小溪河片麻岩套中含早加里东岩体;
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     A fresh eclogite sample is selected for U-Ph isotopic dating of zircon and Ar-Ar dating of phengite, and a garnet-bearing muscovite gneiss sample (country rock of eclogite) for Ar-Ar dating of muscovite.
     选择新鲜的保存较好的榴辉岩分别进行U-Ph和Ar-Ar同位素年代学测定,含石榴子石的白云母片麻岩(此榴辉岩的围岩)被选用于白云母的Ar-Ar测定。
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     The Study on Infrared Information of Coal(rock)Sample During the Process of Failure
     煤(岩)试件变形破坏过程红外信息研究
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     12) instant rocks.
     12.瞬变.
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     ON HYDROTHERMAL ROCK
     关于热液
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  rock)
Nests under a rock wall (7.69%) and a fallen tree (7.69%) were also found.
      
Detailed rock magnetic results show that the magnetic minerals of the sediments were dominated by ferrimagnetic minerals such as magnetite, and a small contribution of hematite and maghematite also existed.
      
The rock series is mainly calc-alk series with high potassium.
      
The South Tianshan Basin and East Tarim Basin were siliceous rock-limestone-mudstone basins.
      
In addition, the characteristics of petrochemical parameters, trace element contents and rare earth element distributions of different rock types of the granitoids in different geotectonic units are also sufficiently discussed.
      
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A.The Soils Since the goological formation of this mountainous area is quite uniform,a vertical distribution of soils is obviously observed. At the top of the mountain with an elevation of 8,500 feet,the podzolic soil is found. The process of podzolization is clearly shown by the translocation of clays,organic matter, and active aluminum from an upper to lower layer.The gray brown podzolic soil is distributed in areas ranging from 7,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation.It is developed under forest and has a...

A.The Soils Since the goological formation of this mountainous area is quite uniform,a vertical distribution of soils is obviously observed. At the top of the mountain with an elevation of 8,500 feet,the podzolic soil is found. The process of podzolization is clearly shown by the translocation of clays,organic matter, and active aluminum from an upper to lower layer.The gray brown podzolic soil is distributed in areas ranging from 7,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation.It is developed under forest and has a surface covering of leaf litter and a surface soil with high content of organic matter.In places at an elevatin from 3,900 to 7,000 feet the yellow podzolic soil is dominant.At an elevation below 3,000 foot the red podzolic soil and the sketetal soil are fonnd. The analytical data of the soils of this area may be summarized as follows: 1.pH values of the soils:In the whole area,since the parent rock (gneiss) is poor in basic constituents,soils are all acid in reaction.The pH of the different horizons of the soils ranges from 4.0 to 5.5.The A_0 and A_1 horizons are usually less acid than B horizon,the A and B horizons are much more acid than the parent rock.This shows the leaching process of the soils under such a humid atmosphere. 2.Organic Matter of the soils:The organic matter content of the soils in this area is greatlg influenced by the kind of the vegetation cover.At an elevation of 8,500 feet, the soil developed under forest has 38.92% of organic matter in the A_1,while that under grass has only 11.08% of organic matter in the corresponding horizon.However as the vegetation cover is constant,the dopth of the A_1 and its organic matter content are evidently affected by the elevation.At an elevation of 3,000 feet,the A_1 horizon of the red podzolic soil is only 1 cm.in depth,and it has 3.37% of organic matter.At an elevation of 8,500 feet,howerver,the A_1 horizon of the podzolic soil is 7 cm.in depth, and it has 11.08% of organic matter.In addition,deposition of organic matter in the B horizon is clearly found in the podzolic soil,but it has not been seen in soils found at lower elevation. 3.Active aluminum of the soils:All the soils in this area are high in active aluminum. They contain from 20 to 16 p.p.m.of active aluminum.The content of active aluminum in the different horizons of the same profile has a very close relationship with the pH values of the corresponding horizon.The less acid the reaction the smaller is the amount of acitve aluminum.The active aluminum of the soil is usually higher in amount than that of the parent rock from which the soil is derived. 4.Available calcium magnesium,and potassium of the soils:All the soils are general- ly low in available calcium,magnesium,and potassium.The comparatively high content of these elements in the A horizon is derived from the leaves of the vegetation which are grown on that soil. 5.Available phosphorus of the soils:All the soils of this area are low in available phosphorus. 6.Available nitrate:All soils in this area are very low in nitrate. B.The Vegetation 1.The plants growing on soils of this area are most calcifuge species which are acid- loving (Vaughan and Wishe,1937).As far as the chemical analysis of the soil is concer- ned,those species may be assumed as not only acid-loving,buy also active aluminum- loving (Hutchinson,1943). 2.The distribution of the calcifuge plants In this area is apparently affected by the local climate in terms of elevation.Some of them (temperate plants) are confined to high elevation,others(tropical plants) being limited to low elevation,Two groups of the plants may be given as follows.Many of them are of the same species as those found in southwestern China (Hou,1944). (a) Plants mainly ocurring in areas at elevations from 7,000 to 8,500 foot (temperate plants): Pteridophyta: Destaedtia Scabra (Wall.) Moore Diranopteris linearis Under. Hicrioptris glauea Under. Hymenophyllum crispatum Wall. Hymenophyllum exsertum Wall. Lidsaya cultrata Sw. Lycopodium clavatum L. Plagiogyria pyphylla (Kunze) Mett. Pteridium aquilinum Wightianum Trym Pteris aspericaulis Wall. Flowering Plants: Castanopsis tribuloides A.DC. Lindera pulcherrima Bth. Osbeckia crinata Bth. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Rhododendron grande Wight Pieris formosana D.Don Vaccinium refersceda HK. Vaccinium serrasum Wight (b) Plants mainly ocurring in areas at elevation from 1,000 to 3,000 feet (tropical plants): Pteridophyta: Adiantum philippense L. Blechnum orientale L. Aglaoorpha coronaus Copel Lycopodium cernum L. Nephrolepsis cordifolia Presl Tectaria spp. Polypodium ucidum Roxb. Flowering plants: Oxyspora paniculate DC. Themeda arundinacea Ridl.

1945年10月中旬,作者留印三月另一周,曾作三次野外调查,计包括印缅边区、恒河平原及喜马拉雅山东南麓等三区,茲先将大吉岭区调查结果,草成此文。调查区域大吉岭位于喜马拉雅山东南麓,在我国西藏边境,全区是山地,海拔自1000到9000尺不等,主为酸性的片麻地层,在拔海6500尺地点,年平均气温为56.3℉.,年雨量为122寸。土壤灰壤——灰棕壤组合:在拔海8500尺左右的山顶,灰壤见于草地上,而灰棕壤则发育在森林之下。灰棕壤——灰化黄壤组合:在拔海7000—8000尺地带,森林下仍是灰棕壤,而草地上则为灰化黄壤。灰化黄壤——粗骨土组合:在拔海1000—3000尺地带,片麻生成灰化红壤,酸性砂生成砾质土。全区土壤特征可归纳如下: (1)土壤 pH 值:全区因土壤母质为酸性片麻,各类土壤剖面亦为酸性反应;pH 值约自4.0至5.5。A_1层之 pH 值恒较 B 层为大,而土壤剖面内之 A 层及 B 层均较母之酸度为高。 (2)土壤有机质:从土壤有机质分析结果观之,显示植物种类对于土壤有机质之含量高低,有密切的关系,在拔海8500尺之地带,发育于森...

1945年10月中旬,作者留印三月另一周,曾作三次野外调查,计包括印缅边区、恒河平原及喜马拉雅山东南麓等三区,茲先将大吉岭区调查结果,草成此文。调查区域大吉岭位于喜马拉雅山东南麓,在我国西藏边境,全区是山地,海拔自1000到9000尺不等,主为酸性的片麻地层,在拔海6500尺地点,年平均气温为56.3℉.,年雨量为122寸。土壤灰壤——灰棕壤组合:在拔海8500尺左右的山顶,灰壤见于草地上,而灰棕壤则发育在森林之下。灰棕壤——灰化黄壤组合:在拔海7000—8000尺地带,森林下仍是灰棕壤,而草地上则为灰化黄壤。灰化黄壤——粗骨土组合:在拔海1000—3000尺地带,片麻生成灰化红壤,酸性砂生成砾质土。全区土壤特征可归纳如下: (1)土壤 pH 值:全区因土壤母质为酸性片麻,各类土壤剖面亦为酸性反应;pH 值约自4.0至5.5。A_1层之 pH 值恒较 B 层为大,而土壤剖面内之 A 层及 B 层均较母之酸度为高。 (2)土壤有机质:从土壤有机质分析结果观之,显示植物种类对于土壤有机质之含量高低,有密切的关系,在拔海8500尺之地带,发育于森林下的灰棕壤,表土含有机质38.92%,而同处草类和蕨类植物发育下的灰壤的表土,仅含有机质11.08%,但在相同的植物环境下,拔海高度或局部气候,也是支配土壤有机质含量的重要因素,例如在拔海3000尺地带,长有草类的灰化红壤,仅有极薄之有机质层,该层有机质含量为3.37%,而在拔海8500尺地带,长有草类的灰壤,则有较厚层有机质,其含量为11.08%。 (3)可溶性铝质:全区土壤含有高量可溶性铝,大约自20至160 p.p.m.,其含量与 pH 值高低相关,土壤 pH 值愈酸,可溶性铝含量就愈高。 (4)可溶性钙镁及钾质:全区土壤之可溶性钙,镁及钾等之含量均较低,但就同一土壤剖面而言,富于有机质的 A。或 A_1层的钙镁和钾质,常较 B 层为高,此点显示此等成份是来自植物遗体,亦即指示土壤中有机质与肥力之关系。 (5)全区土壤有效磷含量均甚低。 (6)全区土壤硝酸态氮之含量均极低,并有下淋现象。植物本文所论植物,仅以作者所采集而经各专家鉴定为限,其中以蕨类植物为主。本区的土壤都是酸性反应,所见的植物是以嫌钙性者为主,这些嫌钙性植物与拔海高度的关系很显著,兹将常见的植物种类,叙述如下: (一)主分布于拔海7000—8500尺地带的植物: 蕨类植物 Dennstaedtia scabra(Wall.)Moore Dicranopteris linearis Under. Hicriopteris glauca Under. Hymenophyllum crispatum Wall. Hymenophyllum exsertum Wall. Lindsaya cultrata Sw. Lycopodium clavatum L. Plagiogyria pycniphylla(Kunze)Mett. Pteridium aquilinum Wightianum Trym. Pteris aspericaulis Wall.种子植物 Castanopsis tribuloides A.DC. Lindera pulcherrima Bth. Osbeckia crinata Bth. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Rhododendron grande Wight Pieris formosana D.Don Vaccinium referesceda HK. Vaccinium Serrasm Wight(二)主分布于1000—3000尺地带的植物: 蕨类植物Adiantum philippense L.Blechnum orientale L.Aglaomorpha coron(?)us copelLycopodium cernuum L.Nephrolepsis cordifolia PresslTectaria spp.Polypodium lucidum Roxb.种子植物Oxysoira paniculata DC.Themedra arundinacea Ridl.

Die Hoch-und Tief-Umwandlungstemperatur des Cristobalits hngt von den Bedingungen seiner Entstehung und schwankt in einem Bereieh yon 180° bis 270℃. Um sich die Schwankungen der Umwandlungstemperatur von Cristbalit und seine Ursaehe zu erklren, haben wir den Einfluss der Faktoren, namentlich den Korngrssen der Rohstoffe, Entstehungstemperatur, Rohstoffsorten und den Mineralisatoren, auf die Umwandlungstemperatur untersucht. Folgende Regelmssigkeiten werden erhalten:1. Die Umwandlungstemperatur hngt von den Korngrssen...

Die Hoch-und Tief-Umwandlungstemperatur des Cristobalits hngt von den Bedingungen seiner Entstehung und schwankt in einem Bereieh yon 180° bis 270℃. Um sich die Schwankungen der Umwandlungstemperatur von Cristbalit und seine Ursaehe zu erklren, haben wir den Einfluss der Faktoren, namentlich den Korngrssen der Rohstoffe, Entstehungstemperatur, Rohstoffsorten und den Mineralisatoren, auf die Umwandlungstemperatur untersucht. Folgende Regelmssigkeiten werden erhalten:1. Die Umwandlungstemperatur hngt von den Korngrssen des auf Entstehungstemperatur unter 1600℃ gebildeten Cristobalits ab. Je feiner die Korngrse dee Bildungsstoffes, um so hher liegt die Umwandlungstemperatur. Gleichfulls die Korngrsse im Bereich von 67.5 his 90μ zeigt sich besonders heftig.2. Die Umwandlungstemperatur erht sich recht gleichmssig mit seiner Entstehungstemperatur nach der Gleichung: t_i=a+bt_f (dabei ist t_i—Umwandlungstemperatur; t_f—Entstehungstemperatur). Es wrid experimentell gefunden, dass die werte a,b abhngig von Rohstoffsorten sind. Fr armorphe Rohstoffe ist b grsser und a kleiner, whrend f kristallische Rohstoffe, ist es umgekehrt.3. Mit zunehmenden Kristallisationsgrad der Rohstoffe wird die Umwandlung zu hheren Temperaturen verschoben, nach der Ordnung: Kieselquarz>Kristalline quarzite>Hornstein>Amorphe Kieselsure.4. Die umwandelnde Kraft yon Mineralisatoren auf die Quarzumwandlung ist strker, je hher die Umwandlungstemperaturen liegen. Es erhht sich folgendermassen: Li_2CO_3>Na_2CO_3>Na_2WO_4>FeO>CaO.

本文探討方石英高低温型轉变温度的变化規律及其原因。就形成方石英的原料颗粒大小、燒成温度、原料类型和矿化剂种类等因素对轉变温度的影响进行研究。結果表明: 1.原料的顆粒大小对1600°以下温度形成的方石英轉变温度有影响,顆粒愈小,轉变温度愈向高温移动,这种傾向对67.5—90μ范圍内的顆粒特別明显。 2.燒成温度以直綫关系影响轉变温度向高温移动,以方程式t_i=a+bt_f(t_i—轉变温度;t_f—燒成温度)表示此关系时,a,b的值依原料类型不同,非晶質原料的—a值小,b值大;結晶質則相反。 3.原料类型依結晶度的高低影响轉变温度移动,結晶度愈高的原料形成的方石英轉变温度愈高,即按:脉石英>石英>燧石>非晶質硅酸的次序温度升高。 4.矿化剂作用力的强弱对方石英的高低温型轉变温度亦有影响,矿化作用愈强的矿化剂愈影响所形成的方石英轉变温度向高温移动,其次序为:Li_2CO_3>Na_2CO_3>FeO>CaO。

Clay particles of less than 1μ were separated from 18 selected soil samples, representing important types of red and yellow soils of southern China.Com- position of clay minerals was identified by X-ray defraction,differential ther- mal analysis,base exchange capacity and chemical constituents.Zonality of the weathering stage of the soil,as shown in Fig.I,is explained briefly as follows. Region(Ⅰ)Lateritic soils Representative clay minerals:Kaolinite-gibbsite-hematite.Soils of this type mainly distribute on...

Clay particles of less than 1μ were separated from 18 selected soil samples, representing important types of red and yellow soils of southern China.Com- position of clay minerals was identified by X-ray defraction,differential ther- mal analysis,base exchange capacity and chemical constituents.Zonality of the weathering stage of the soil,as shown in Fig.I,is explained briefly as follows. Region(Ⅰ)Lateritic soils Representative clay minerals:Kaolinite-gibbsite-hematite.Soils of this type mainly distribute on the rolling hills of northern Hainan island,Laichou peninsula and south-central Yunnan.Formation of lateritic soil seems confined to the highly weathered parent materials of basalt origin,which were formed possibly at tertial geological age.Present direction of soil development remains much controversy. The whole soil contains around 20% Fe_2O_3 as hematite.Clay portions (<1μ)of the soil possess base exchange capacity 5—5.5 m.e.per 100 grams and SiO_2/Al_2O_3 ratio 1.4—1.5. TiO_2 in form of ilmenite presents both in silt and clay fractions up to 4—6%. Region(Ⅱ)Red soils of tropic zone Representative clay minerals:Kaolinite-halloysite.Soils of this type form a narrow belt in the tropic zone,extending from southern Fukien to Kwangsi. They are derived from various parent materials,including granite,metamor- phic rocks,sand stones,shales and marine deposits.Clay minerals of kaolinite group are the characteristic weathering product of this soil type with minor portions of gibbsite,hematite,quartz,and illite. Clay fractions of this soft type possess base exchange capacity 10—15 m.e. per 100 grams and SiO_3/Al_2O_3 ratio 1.7—2.0. Region(Ⅲ)Red soils of subtropic zone Representative clay minerals:Kaolinite-quartz-Montmorillonite.Soils of this type distribute in the subtropic zone of south-cntral China,occurring on the low hills and terraces below 500—600 meters altitude.They are derived from granite,phyllite,sandstones,shales and red clay.The much higher ex- change capacity of clay fraction(20—25 m.e.per 100 grams),higher SiO_2/Al_O_3 ratio(2.0—2.3),together with the identified clay minerals characterize the less advanced weathering stage in comparison to the soils of tropic zone. In the silt fraction of this soil type much of orthoclass and mica remain undecomposed. Region(Ⅳ)Yellow soils on the mountainous region of southern China Representative clay minerals.Kaolinite-montmorillonite,Illitequartz and montmorillonite-quartz. On the higher mountains above 600—700 meters altitude of southern China, including both tropic and subtropic zones,yellow soils and partially red soils occur.Clay minerals of this soil type characterize a moderately weathering stage.Montmorillonite,illite,kaolinite and quartz are the major constituents, but variations of the composition of these minerals are determined by the primary minerals of their parent rocks. Clay fractions of this soil type possess base exchange capacity 24—34 m.e. per 100 grams,with higher content of active alumina up to 2.5—5.5 m.e.per 100 grams. Soils occurring on the depression area of red earth region usually appear yellowish.The diversity of soil color leads much controversies in soil classifi- cation.Present investigation indicates that the change from reddish coloration to yellowish in the depression area is induced by the hydration of hematite. Once a small portion of the anhydrous ferric oxide has been hydrated into geothite or limonite due to local variation of the moisture condition,while the main constituents of the clay minerals remain unchanged,the soil gives a dis- tinctive yellowish coating.The change is very sensitive.

1.用 X-光分析,差热分析,化学分析和代换量测定方法,综合鉴定了华南砖红壤性红壤,热带红壤,亚热带红壤和山地黄壤的粘土矿物组成,并绘制了华南土壤主要粘土矿物组成分区图。我们将华南土壤分为四个区,即砖红壤性红壤区,主要粘土矿物为高岭石,三水铝石,赤铁矿;热带红壤区,主要粘土矿物为高岭石,埃洛石;亚热带红壤区以高岭石,石英,濛脱石为主;山地黄壤区,以伊利石,濛脱石,石英,高岭石为主,其组合因母的不同而转移。2.我们对微域地形,如坡上、坡下;南坡、北坡和局部气候的影响,使土壤颜色发生了显著的变化的红色,黄色土壤进行了研究。结果证明,二者的化学性质、粘土矿物组成完全相同。在低洼地区和阳坡等湿润条件下赤铁矿部分水化成为针铁矿,因之使土壤颜色变黄。但这种黄色土壤与风化程度较浅的山地黄壤是有很大区别的。3.我们把由浅海沉积物母发育,过去称为砖红壤性红黄色土的土壤,划归红壤。因为我们研究结果证明,这类土壤的风化程度并不比红壤深些,它们的粘士矿物组成和化学性质与热带地区的红壤也很一致。砖红壤性土壤,仅仅局限于一定的母。4.在紫红色砂发育的山地黄壤中发现了一水软铝石的存在...

1.用 X-光分析,差热分析,化学分析和代换量测定方法,综合鉴定了华南砖红壤性红壤,热带红壤,亚热带红壤和山地黄壤的粘土矿物组成,并绘制了华南土壤主要粘土矿物组成分区图。我们将华南土壤分为四个区,即砖红壤性红壤区,主要粘土矿物为高岭石,三水铝石,赤铁矿;热带红壤区,主要粘土矿物为高岭石,埃洛石;亚热带红壤区以高岭石,石英,濛脱石为主;山地黄壤区,以伊利石,濛脱石,石英,高岭石为主,其组合因母的不同而转移。2.我们对微域地形,如坡上、坡下;南坡、北坡和局部气候的影响,使土壤颜色发生了显著的变化的红色,黄色土壤进行了研究。结果证明,二者的化学性质、粘土矿物组成完全相同。在低洼地区和阳坡等湿润条件下赤铁矿部分水化成为针铁矿,因之使土壤颜色变黄。但这种黄色土壤与风化程度较浅的山地黄壤是有很大区别的。3.我们把由浅海沉积物母发育,过去称为砖红壤性红黄色土的土壤,划归红壤。因为我们研究结果证明,这类土壤的风化程度并不比红壤深些,它们的粘士矿物组成和化学性质与热带地区的红壤也很一致。砖红壤性土壤,仅仅局限于一定的母。4.在紫红色砂发育的山地黄壤中发现了一水软铝石的存在,对它的生成、转变尚待进一步研究。

 
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