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制度的改革
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  “制度的改革”译为未确定词的双语例句
     On the Reform Policy of the Cost System
     论成本制度的改革方向
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     Development of Market Economyand Reform of Customs System
     中国市场经济的发展与关税制度的改革
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     On the Reform and Development of Cropping System
     论种植制度的改革与发展
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     A Investigation Report about Mining Right Administration in Australia
     借鉴市场经济国家的经验 促进我国矿业权管理制度的改革──澳大利亚矿业权管理考察报告
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     On The Development and Reform Of Rural Land Use System
     论我国农村土地使用制度的改革及发展
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     (5) Reform the employment system.
     改革用工制度
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     Reform the system of property rights;
     改革产权制度
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     On the Reform of Educational System
     试论教学制度改革
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     Reform system and transfer mechanism,strengthen vitality and meet market
     论企业制度改革
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     Institutional Analysis to Reformation of Public Utility
     公用事业改革制度分析
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  the reform of institutions
Focus on the reform of institutions and processes, not on the promotion of lifestyles.
      


The biocycling of nitrogen and mineral elements of wheat, barley, maize, sorghum and peanut grown on the calcareous cinnamon soil in Beijing was studied. The results are shown as follows:

京郊耕地碳酸盐褐土小麦、大麦、玉米、高梁、花生五种农作物氮及灰分元素生物循环的研究结果表明。1.不同作物存留、归还、吸收不同元素数量的差别很大。豆科作物花生以对钙、镁吸收量大为其显著特征;禾本科作物吸收较高数量硅、铁、铝、锰、钠。在四种禾本科作物中,高粱吸收较高数量氮、磷、钾、钙、镁、硅,大麦吸收较高数量钠、硫和锰。2.不同作物以根、茬形式对11种元素和灰分向土壤中的归还有三种情况:1)低度归还类型:氮磷钾,归还比例一般低于10%;2)中度归还类型:镁钙硫硅钠和灰分,归还比例介于10—30%;3)高度归还类型:铁铝和锰,归还比例一般为30%。3.不同农作物生物循环特点对研究农田生态系统元素平衡、耕地土壤肥力变化和形成过程以及施肥、耕作制度改革,都有重要意义。

The semi-arid area of northwestern Liaoning province is located in119°-123°30′N., 40°30′-43°N.. Average annual rainfall is 400-500mm from northwestern part to southeastern part. There were 300 mmmore or less rainfall per year only from 1980-1982. Total annualevaporation is fourfold than annual rainfall. Average annual tempera-ture is 7-9°c.≥10°c temperature is 3200°-3600°C. The crop growingperiod is 130-160 days. The soil types are Yellow-white soil, Brownsoil and Sandy soil. There are 17 million mu of farm...

The semi-arid area of northwestern Liaoning province is located in119°-123°30′N., 40°30′-43°N.. Average annual rainfall is 400-500mm from northwestern part to southeastern part. There were 300 mmmore or less rainfall per year only from 1980-1982. Total annualevaporation is fourfold than annual rainfall. Average annual tempera-ture is 7-9°c.≥10°c temperature is 3200°-3600°C. The crop growingperiod is 130-160 days. The soil types are Yellow-white soil, Brownsoil and Sandy soil. There are 17 million mu of farm land, (1.13 mil-lion hecters), which are 70% in hillside and 30% in the plain.Based on its natural environment, ecolegical conditions. existingproductive capacity of agriculture and long-term practical experience,some ways of reforming farming system were discussed.1. Controlling water and soll erosion through afforestation andgrass-growing is a reliable base of farming system reform. Yield per unitarea and soil organic matter content have double where afforastation waspersisted in and a proper ratio between crop and grass was kept.2. It is essential to establish a soil tillage system for drought re-sistant and controlling wind and water erosion mainly changing frequenttillage to minimum tillage, harrowing and rolling during winter andearly spring to preserve soil noisture.3. It is an effective way of readjusting crop proportion in dry far-ming area to stabilize and increase yield and income by expanding theareas of drought-resistant crops such as millet, sunflower, sweet potato,etc. and increasing apprepriately the areas of fibre crops in irrigatedland.4. Dry land irrigation is a favorable measure to increase yield. Butthe water resource is unsufficient in this area. Irrigation during winterand early spring, storing up the soil water with tillage and utilizing itduring stress season, is an effective measure to overcome spring drought.

辽宁省西北部半干旱地区是广阔的欧亚中纬度干旱、半干旱地区的东缘南段。总面积约为2.81万平方公里,占全省总土地面积的20%左右,共有耕地1700万亩;平均每人占有耕地3~10亩以上,是该省人少地多的地区。 全区地势西高东低。年平均气温在7~9℃之间,年≥10℃积温在3200℃~3600℃之间,无霜期130~170天,年日照时数2400~3000小时,太阳年辐射量在130大卡/平方厘米·年左右。年降水量在500毫米左右。作者分析了七个县20多年的年降水量与粮食亩产量的关系,指出:年降水量不足400毫米,则亩产量明显下降;当年降水量小于300毫米时,则严重减产。朝阳县29年的资料,年降水量小于400毫米的共有7年,其亩产量都在180斤以下。 本区耕作制度改革的主要途径是: 1、造林种草,防止水土流失;改广种薄收为精耕细种、少种,高产多收。 2、确立防旱、防风蚀、防水蚀的“三防”土壤耕作制。 3、扩大抗旱作物、增种经济作物,调整作物布局,作到稳中求高,增产增收。 4、发展灌溉是提高产量的有效途径。

The objective criterion to measure the soundness and perfectness of the leadership system of socialistic enterprise are: the Party leadership well embodied; worker's rightof democratic management well ensured; responsibility system strictly implemented; manage-ment by experts and profesionals well realized. In the past, when we solved questionsabout enterprise leadership, stress was usual1y laid on the Party leadership and the massline, and the latter two criterion were comparatively negle?ted. Lenin had made...

The objective criterion to measure the soundness and perfectness of the leadership system of socialistic enterprise are: the Party leadership well embodied; worker's rightof democratic management well ensured; responsibility system strictly implemented; manage-ment by experts and profesionals well realized. In the past, when we solved questionsabout enterprise leadership, stress was usual1y laid on the Party leadership and the massline, and the latter two criterion were comparatively negle?ted. Lenin had made greateffort to tackle the questions of expert management and responsibility system, but he neverput worker's democracy and the Party leadership on the oppsite. Lenin had solved thisquestion quite well. We should learn his experience for reference. In contemporaryreform movement, we should learn from the experiences and lessons in the past. Weshould handle well these four criterion. and bring the plant director's quality and disciplineinto consideration, using it as criterion to select director nd to assess his work, so as to warrant the Party leadership under the condition of implementing director responsibility system.

衡量社会主义企业领导制度是否健全和完善的客观标准是:一要能够体现党对企业的领导,二要能够保障职工参加企业的民主管理,三要能够贯彻严格的责任制度,四要能够实现专家、内行管理。我国过去在解决企业领导制度问题时侧重于党的领导和群众路线方面的问题,对后两项比较忽视。列宁则着力于解决专家管理和责任制问题,但并没有同发扬民主和加强党的领导对立起来。列宁对企业领导制度问题解决得比较好,可以作为我们的借鉴。在当前企业领导制度的改革中,要吸取过去的经验教训,全面地掌握上述四项要求,同时要建立厂长索质标准并把它纳入企业领导制度中去,作为选择、考核、监督厂长的依据,使之成为在厂长负责制的条件下加强党的领导、坚持群众路线的重要保证。

 
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