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dna
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     Methods Using the DNA endlabeling method the effect of dopamine (DA) on rat apoptotic PC12 cells was examined by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy.
     方法用脱氧核糖核酸(DNA)标记法,借助流式细胞仪和荧光显微镜观察多巴胺(DA)对大鼠嗜铬细胞瘤(PC12)细胞凋亡的影响。
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     Methods 112 samples of genome DNA from 10 NIDDM pedigrees were collected. Exon 2 10 of glucokinase gene were amplified by PCR and screened with SSCP electrophoresis and silver staining.
     方法收集10个NIDDM家系的112例基因组(DNA),经多聚合酶链反应(PCR)扩增葡萄糖激酶基因第2~10号外显子,SSCP电泳,硝酸银染色筛查点突变。
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     Methods The effects of dopamine (DA) and glutathione (GSH) on apoptotic PC12 cell were examined by fluorescence microscopy using the DNA end- labeling method.
     方法用脱氧核糖核酸(DNA)标记法,借助荧光显微镜观察多巴胺(DA)和还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)对PC12细胞凋亡的影响。
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     The resonance Raman spectra of water-soluble copper-porphyrin Cu(NEAE)[Cutetrakis(4-N-ethylacetatepyridyl) porphine] and its complex with calf thymus DNA were measured with 400 and 445urn pulse laser excitation.
     本文用400um和445um脉冲激光激发测量了不同功率条件下的水溶铜卟啉CU(NEAE)(4-N-乙酸乙酯基-吡啶基铜卟啉)及其与小牛胸腺脱氧核糖核酸(DNA)复合物的共振拉曼光谱。
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     3. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes.
     3.采集血液样本并提取白细胞和基因组脱氧核糖核酸(DNA)
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     Superoxide dismutase could not inhibite DNA damage in the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system.
     DNA
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     DNA,respectively.
     DNA
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  dna
A gene regulatory mechanism has been proposed in which steroid hormones and certain other drugs bind to nuclear receptor proteins followed by transfer to DNA where they are inserted between base pairs.
      
Here, we report using the estrogen receptor that the location of drugs in x-ray crystal structures of the receptors matches closely their predicted spatial locations in the DNA.
      
These findings provide compelling evidence that DNA is the ultimate target of these drugs that act on the human genome.
      
In the present study, two of the probable an umor marine compounds, manzamine A and sarcophine, were screened using benzo[a]pyrene (BP)-derived DNA adduct formation in MCF-7 cells as intermediary biomarker.
      
After 24h incubation, cellular DNA was isolated and analyzed for BP-derived DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling technique.
      
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The general histological structure is fundamentally similar to that of the skin of frog (Pl. Ⅰ, Fig. 1). In the superficial layer of the dermis there are large and conspicuous round masses, which are akin to the sieve layer (Siebschicht of Kastschenko) both in appearance and in staining reaction (Pl. Ⅰ, Fig. 1; Pl. Ⅳ, Fig. 6). To our knowledge, the origin and function of these masses as well as the sieve layer are still obscure.According to the living habit, the life of the toad during the year can be divided...

The general histological structure is fundamentally similar to that of the skin of frog (Pl. Ⅰ, Fig. 1). In the superficial layer of the dermis there are large and conspicuous round masses, which are akin to the sieve layer (Siebschicht of Kastschenko) both in appearance and in staining reaction (Pl. Ⅰ, Fig. 1; Pl. Ⅳ, Fig. 6). To our knowledge, the origin and function of these masses as well as the sieve layer are still obscure.According to the living habit, the life of the toad during the year can be divided into three seasons: namely, the hibernating, the breeding and the post-breeding season.In the hibernating season the epidermis reaches its maximal thickness due to increase in cell layer as well as in cell size. Cell division is rare in this season. The superficial layer is evenly cornified and the intensity of comification is intermediate, being stronger than that in the breeding season but less than that in the post-breeding season. This horny layer is connected intimately with the layer below and shows no sign of moulting (Pl.Ⅰ, Fig. 1; Pl. Ⅱ, Fig. 1). The flask-cells of Pfitzner (nucous cells of Legdig or goblet cells of Schultze) are very rare and when present, they are not fully differentiated from the ordinary epidermal cells. Melanophores are greatly expanded both in the epidermis and in the dermis (Pl.Ⅳ, Figs. 4, 3). Dermal papillae are tall and prominent (Pl. Ⅱ, Fig. 1).In the breeding season the epidermis is much thinner than that in the hibernating season. Moulting of skin goes on continuously. In association with moulting the flask-cells increase in number and show vigorous activity in secretion (Pl. Ⅱ, Fig, 2). Numerous amitoses are present in the middle and lower layer of the epidermis. At the initiation of the amitotic division a furrow appears at one side of the nucleus, which deepens and finally cuts the nucleus into two. Sometimes two furrows are formed, causing one nucleus to break up into three. A furrow may start at one end of the long diameter of the elliptical nucleus, causing it to split longitudinally into two daughter nuclei (Pl. Ⅰ, Fig, 2). We call this mode of amitosis furrowing amitosis. The usual mode of amitosis in which the nucleus divides by a central constriction could be found also, but cases are very rare. Mitotic figures are very rare. Melanophores are more or less contracted in the epidermis as well as in the dermis (Pl. Ⅱ, Fig. 2).In the post-breeding season the epidermis is intermediate in thickness between those of hibernating and breeding seasons. Due to the dryness on land the certification of the superficial layer is intense. Sometimes there are three layers of highly cornified cells, while in the other seasons this layer is always simple (Pl. Ⅱ, Figs. 3, 4, 5). Both mitosis and amitosis are present (Pl. Ⅱ, Figs. 6, 7). The former is much more in number than the latter. Wandering cells in the dermis penetrate into the epidermis and become epidermal cells (Pl. Ⅲ, Figs. 1, 2, 3). Flask-cells are fewer in number and less in activity than in the breeding season, hence the moulting of skin goes on slowly. All the melanophores are contracted in the form of a black spot (Pl. Ⅱ, Figs. 3, 4, 5). The blood vessels in the epidermis are greatly expanded, and are therefore easily seen (Pl.Ⅳ, Fig. 6).The nuclei of certain epidermal cells send out processes, which penetrate through the cell membrane and move along the intercellular spaces (Pl. Ⅲ, Figs. 4, 6). Sometimes these processes get into the neighboring cells (Pl. Ⅲ, Figs. 7, 8). In still other cases nuclei sued out coarse processes which come into contact with identical processes sent out by nuclei of neighboring cells (Pl. Ⅲ, Fig. 5). So far as we know, such intercellular activity of nuclei of the epidermal cells has not been heretofore repoifted. Its significance probably lies in the transportation of certain substances such as DNA. Nuclei showing this activity stain more intensively with Feulgen.The above description applies to the typical structures in each season. It is found that at the time between two se

蟾蜍皮肤的构造基本上与蛙类相同。只是在蟾蜍的真皮上层除去有筛层而外还有大而圆的物体,在形态及染色反应上与筛层相近似,我们名之为粘液团(因为有粘液反应)。 依大蟾蜍的生活习性,我们把它在一年之中的生活分为三期——冬眠期、生殖期及生殖后期。 冬眠期表皮的厚度增加,层数多,细胞也增大。很少见细胞分裂。表层细胞角化得很均匀,其程度比生殖期略强而比生殖后期为弱。这一层与下面一层连接得很紧密,没有任何脱落的迹象。瓶状细胞很少,如果看到总是处于不太分化的状态,除去它的细胞质比较清明而外,与表皮细胞的差别不大。在表皮与真皮之中色素细胞极度扩张。真皮乳头高而显著。 生殖期表皮比冬眠期薄,脱皮不断迸行。与脱皮相关的瓶状细胞数量增加,并且显现非常强烈的分泌过程。在中层及下层中有许多的无丝分裂。分裂的方式多为陷沟式。一般所见的无丝分裂即核拉长,中间缢缩,然后分开的情形也能见到,不过远比陷沟式为少。有丝分裂很少见到。表皮与真皮中的色素细胞多少有些收缩。 生殖后期表皮的厚度界于冬眠与生殖二期之间。由于陆地的干燥表皮表层细胞角化程度加深。有时表面集聚三层高度角化的细胞,而在其他季节中表层总是一层。有丝分裂与无丝分裂皆有,但前者远比后者为多...

蟾蜍皮肤的构造基本上与蛙类相同。只是在蟾蜍的真皮上层除去有筛层而外还有大而圆的物体,在形态及染色反应上与筛层相近似,我们名之为粘液团(因为有粘液反应)。 依大蟾蜍的生活习性,我们把它在一年之中的生活分为三期——冬眠期、生殖期及生殖后期。 冬眠期表皮的厚度增加,层数多,细胞也增大。很少见细胞分裂。表层细胞角化得很均匀,其程度比生殖期略强而比生殖后期为弱。这一层与下面一层连接得很紧密,没有任何脱落的迹象。瓶状细胞很少,如果看到总是处于不太分化的状态,除去它的细胞质比较清明而外,与表皮细胞的差别不大。在表皮与真皮之中色素细胞极度扩张。真皮乳头高而显著。 生殖期表皮比冬眠期薄,脱皮不断迸行。与脱皮相关的瓶状细胞数量增加,并且显现非常强烈的分泌过程。在中层及下层中有许多的无丝分裂。分裂的方式多为陷沟式。一般所见的无丝分裂即核拉长,中间缢缩,然后分开的情形也能见到,不过远比陷沟式为少。有丝分裂很少见到。表皮与真皮中的色素细胞多少有些收缩。 生殖后期表皮的厚度界于冬眠与生殖二期之间。由于陆地的干燥表皮表层细胞角化程度加深。有时表面集聚三层高度角化的细胞,而在其他季节中表层总是一层。有丝分裂与无丝分裂皆有,但前者远比后者为多,真皮中的游走细胞穿入?

The effect of irradiation by X-rays, without the exclusion of oxygen, on the molecular structureof calf thymus DNA has been studied. The reduced viscosity (η_(sp)/c) was decreased and themolar extinction coefficient (ε_(260mμ)) increased with increasing X-ray dosage at a definite doserate. Besides these apparent effects, there were, as deduced from studies on heat-lability, alsohidden damages in the DNA macromolecule, even with dosage as low as 1×10~4r. Whileη_(sp)/cand e26anu of the unirradiated...

The effect of irradiation by X-rays, without the exclusion of oxygen, on the molecular structureof calf thymus DNA has been studied. The reduced viscosity (η_(sp)/c) was decreased and themolar extinction coefficient (ε_(260mμ)) increased with increasing X-ray dosage at a definite doserate. Besides these apparent effects, there were, as deduced from studies on heat-lability, alsohidden damages in the DNA macromolecule, even with dosage as low as 1×10~4r. Whileη_(sp)/cand e26anu of the unirradiated DNA remained unchanged after incubahon in 0.2M NaCl at76'C for 60 min., the irradiated DNA uPOn incubation shovvcd further decreases in V,./c and in-crea5es in ε_(260mμ). This decreased stability of the irradiated DNA towards heating revealed that,in addition to the disruption of some of the hydrogen-bonds in DNA immediately upon irradia-tion, a labilization of other hydrogen-bonds has also occurred. A protective agent, probably Ca-citrate, was found to be present in the stock solution of DNA.In the presence of this protective agent, the η_(sp)/c of DNA remained constant after 6×10~4rand decreased slightly after 12×10~4 r irradiation, with no significant changes in ε_(260nμ). However,the hidden damage was not prevented and it developed to greater extents with increasing dosages. Samples which suffered only hidden damages provided comparatively simple systems for theinvestigation of the nature of primary events occurring upon irradiation and their bearing on theapparent degradation of the DNA molecule. In the presence of the protective agent, the dose-effect curves based on η_(sp)/c measurements showed that, preceding the appearance of degradation,there was an apparently stable phase during which the hidden damage was actually developing, asevidenced by the increased heat-lability. This suggested that the hidden damage may involve the disruption of one of the chains ofthe double-helical structure of DNA, causing the breakagc of the hydrogen-bonds near the pointsof main-chain damage, rendering the other hydrogen-bonds unstable toward 76℃ incubation, andeventually resulting in the degradation of the macromolecule as an accumulative effect. Provided that there is no essential difference between the direct and the indirect action of X-rays on DNA, the mechanism suggested above could also account for the process of degradationproduced in the absence of the protective agent, which probably acts only in the neutralization offree-radicals produced from water by irradiation. The mechanism of the action of Ca-citrate as a protective agent for DNA and the significanceof the hidden damage of the DNA macromolecule in the primary and cumulative hiological effectof radiation were also discussed.

(1)用X射线照射小牛胸腺DNA溶液,以还原粘度和紫外吸收光谱的变化为指标,证明射线对DNA大分子除有直接显露的降解之外,还可导致对76度保温不稳定性的出现。这反映了结构上隐藏破坏的存在。隐藏破坏与所接受照射的剂量成比例地增加。(2)按Zamenhof法制备的DNA样品储存液中合有“保护物质”。在“保护物质”的存在下,DNA溶液可耐受6×10~4r的照射而无直接显露的降解发生。但隐藏破坏却不可避免,在一定剂量下可以单独地存在,并随剂量之增加而发展,当剂量增加到一定程度时,显露的降解随之出现。(3)“保护物质”是可透析的,它具有抗射线的作用,而不是保全已遭受降解的DNA的大小外形。实验结果表明“保护物质”可能是钙-柠檬酸盐。讨论了钙-柠檬酸盐保护作用的机制。(4)比较隐藏破坏单独存在和与直接显露的降解同时存在的实验结果表明,隐藏破坏的本质包括了:1)主链的单侧打断,2)部分氢键的破坏,3)残余氢键不稳定性的增加。在三者之间有平行的比例关系。主链的打断可能是后二者出现的原因。分子的直接降解可能又是隐藏破坏积累的结果。(5)在“保护物质”存在下照射DNA,为人工制造隐藏破坏,研究DNA的结构与功能提供了一个简便的方...

(1)用X射线照射小牛胸腺DNA溶液,以还原粘度和紫外吸收光谱的变化为指标,证明射线对DNA大分子除有直接显露的降解之外,还可导致对76度保温不稳定性的出现。这反映了结构上隐藏破坏的存在。隐藏破坏与所接受照射的剂量成比例地增加。(2)按Zamenhof法制备的DNA样品储存液中合有“保护物质”。在“保护物质”的存在下,DNA溶液可耐受6×10~4r的照射而无直接显露的降解发生。但隐藏破坏却不可避免,在一定剂量下可以单独地存在,并随剂量之增加而发展,当剂量增加到一定程度时,显露的降解随之出现。(3)“保护物质”是可透析的,它具有抗射线的作用,而不是保全已遭受降解的DNA的大小外形。实验结果表明“保护物质”可能是钙-柠檬酸盐。讨论了钙-柠檬酸盐保护作用的机制。(4)比较隐藏破坏单独存在和与直接显露的降解同时存在的实验结果表明,隐藏破坏的本质包括了:1)主链的单侧打断,2)部分氢键的破坏,3)残余氢键不稳定性的增加。在三者之间有平行的比例关系。主链的打断可能是后二者出现的原因。分子的直接降解可能又是隐藏破坏积累的结果。(5)在“保护物质”存在下照射DNA,为人工制造隐藏破坏,研究DNA的结构与功能提供了一个简便的方法。

Adult Scfiistosoma japonicum worms obtained from the mesenteric veins of artificially infected mice were studied histochemically for the distribution of nucleic acids, amino acids, glycogen and phosphatases. The results obtained may be summarized below.1. Nucleic acids were seen mostly in the parenchyma cells and reproductive organs. In the testes, DNA was very rich, while RNA was found abundantly in the vitcllaria and ovary.2. The positive reaction for tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine was found in the...

Adult Scfiistosoma japonicum worms obtained from the mesenteric veins of artificially infected mice were studied histochemically for the distribution of nucleic acids, amino acids, glycogen and phosphatases. The results obtained may be summarized below.1. Nucleic acids were seen mostly in the parenchyma cells and reproductive organs. In the testes, DNA was very rich, while RNA was found abundantly in the vitcllaria and ovary.2. The positive reaction for tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine was found in the subcuticular muscles, ovary, testes, vitelline cells and the intestinal epithelium. The bromo-pheriol-blue test for basic proteins was strongly positive in the subcuticular muscles, parenchyma cells and vitellaria, while the positive reaction for ferricyanide method was found only in the cytoplasm of the vitelline cells. 3. Glycogen was richly distributed in. the parenchyma, especially in the region adjacent to the gynaccophoric canal of male worms. It was also present, though in small quantity, in the mature ovum.4. Alkaline phosphatase activity was most pronounced in the Cuticular layer and the epithelial cells of ootypc, while moderately positive reaction was observed in the excretory canal and vitelline cells. Acid phosphatase activity was shown most strongly in the subcuticular muscle layer and the parenchyma cells; the epithelia of the intestinal canal and the sexual glands showed also positive reaction.5. The role played by the substances demonstrated histochcmically in various organs of this fluke was discussed. It is suggested that the phosphatase activity in the cuticular layer might be associated with the active absorption of carbohydrates.

1.应用组织化学的方法研究了从小白鼠肠系膜静脉内取出的日本血吸虫成虫体内核酸、氨基酸、糖元和磷酸酶的分布情况。 2.成虫体内核酸的分布虽较广泛,但以雄虫的睾丸、雌虫的卵巢和卵黄腺中的含量为最高。在睾丸中主要为DNA,而卵巢和卵黄腺中则为RNA。 3.虫体的肌纤维、卵巢和睾丸中的生殖细胞核、卵黄细胞和肠管上皮细胞对显示酪氨酸、色氨酸和组氨酸的偶联重氮反应呈现阳性。角皮下肌层、实质组织细胞和卵黄细胞的颗粒滴呈强的溴酚蓝阳性反应。而对铁氰化物的反应仅卵黄细胞的颗粒滴呈现阳性。 4.糖元主要分布于虫体的实质组织和各种肌纤维内,尤以雄虫抱雌沟附近的实质组织内含量最多。在生殖器官中,仅成熟的卵细胞胞浆含有少许。 5.成虫体表角皮含有大量的碱性磷酸酶,而卵模上皮细胞、卵黄细胞和排泄管壁亦呈阳性反应。酸性磷酸酶主要分布于虫体的角皮下肌层、实质组织细胞核、肠管上皮细胞、雌雄生殖细胞和卵黄细胞内。 6.对于日本血吸虫体内各器官组织中所含的上述各种化学物质的生理意义进行了讨论,并认为血吸虫除肠道摄食外,尚可通过体表角皮吸收碳水化合物等营养物质。

 
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