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应力
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     The tests ofphysical properties、prcocessability and regular mechanical properties of SnAgCuRE show that the content of RE added into the Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu is not suggested to exceed 1.0wt.%.
     因此,稀土添加量的最佳范围在0.05wt.%-0.25wt.%之间,稀土添加不易超过1.0wt.%。 对Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu和SnAgCu-0.1RE两种合金的钎焊接头蠕变参数(应力指数、蠕变激活能)分别进行了测定;
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     The quantitative function of fatigue strength (stress rang) and fatigue life is Sa=329404e-1069R-25709e-1369RlgNf. 
     疲劳强度(应力幅)与疲劳寿命的定量关系为Sa=329.404e-1.069R-25.709e-1.369RlgNf。
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     Two physical quantities, β1 (the ratio of B to P components of displacement) and β2 (the ratio of B to P components of stress), are defined for Rayleigh wave. By the theoretical and numerical analyses, it is found that β1 and β2 ard closely related to the stratified structure of media, gi and β2 are two important physical quantities for the exploration of the structure of the interfaces of layers in stratified media.
     定义了关于Rnyleigh面波的两个物理量β1(位移的民P分量比)和β2(应力的B,P分量比),经理论及数值分析发现:β1和β2与介质的层状结构密切相关,是对层状介质进行分析和判断的两个重要物理量。
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     In the rotary bending fatigue test, axial load was put successively on the specimens to change the distribution of stress in them.
     在旋转弯曲疲劳试验中,通过施加轴向载荷,改变试样的应力分布,以研究平均应力(应力比)对其疲劳强度的影响。
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     Various Contrastive deformation observations before the Ruojiang earthquake of 6.6 at the Kuerle seismic station are investigated. The results show that The preceding anomaiies began at the end of 1990 and the principal anomalies in February, 1993. The period of 2~4 months before the event was the anomaly peak.
     研究了1993年若羌6.6级地震前库尔勒地震台多种形变(应力、应变)对比观测资料,结果表明,前期异常始于1990年底,主体异常始于1993年2月,震前2─4个月是异常发展的高潮期。
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     ,Reynolds stress(?) ,(?)
     ,雷诺应力(?)
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     stress concentration;
     应力集中;
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  (stress
In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of Alpha-1A Selective Agonists and Their Utility for Stress Incontience
      
A new way to estimate the parameters in the progressive stress accelerated life testing
      
In this article a deficiency in the classical approach is pointed out and a new method for the statistical analysis of life data, especially for electronic products, under progressive stress (voltage)V(t) =Kt is given.
      
Using the Bayesian method, for certain choices of the prior distribution, several forms of estimators of the parameters in the normal stress Weibull distribution and the inverse power law model are derived.
      
In particular, when the new shape parameter of the distribution under progressive stress is given (or estimated in advance), the closed forms of these estimators are relatively simple and are numerically accessible on computers.
      
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Hair-line cracks or flakes in steel are known to be associated with the presence of hydrogen. A prevailing theory states that the crack formation is due to disruptive hydrogen pressure being built up in defects in steel. However, little was known regarding to the nature of these defects and the detailed mechanism of the hair-line crack formation. An attempt was made in the present research to investigate this problem by means of internal friction measurements. The preliminary experiments show: (1) The presence...

Hair-line cracks or flakes in steel are known to be associated with the presence of hydrogen. A prevailing theory states that the crack formation is due to disruptive hydrogen pressure being built up in defects in steel. However, little was known regarding to the nature of these defects and the detailed mechanism of the hair-line crack formation. An attempt was made in the present research to investigate this problem by means of internal friction measurements. The preliminary experiments show: (1) The presence of hydrogen in certain steels may give rise to the appearance of an internal friction peak when internal friction is plotted against the temperature of measurement; (2) a slight amount of cold-work or soaking at a given temperature has a considerable effect on the optimum temperature of the observed internal friction peak, which indicates that the internal friction peak may be connected with the defects or stress condition in steel; (3) the internal friction peak shows an anomalous amplitude effect, i.e., at a given temperature of measurement an internal friction peak is obtained when the internal friction is plotted against the stress amplitude. Such an anomalous behavior is similar to that previously observed by. one of the authors (Ke) in the case of aluminimum containing 0.5% Cu. It is therefore considered that the internal friction peaks observed may be related to the interaction of hydrogen with the dislocations in steel.

钢的内部发裂已经公认为与钢中的氢气有关。现有的理论认为这是由于氢气聚集于钢中的内部缺陷产生破裂压力所引起,然而关于缺陷的性质和引起内部发裂的详细机构迄今还没有明确的了解。本文尝试用内耗测量的方法来研究这个问题。初步实验的结果指出: (1)氢在钢中可以引起内耗峰(将内耗表示为测量温度的函数时); (2)轻微冷加工或保温对于内耗峰的颠值温度有着显著的影响,这表示所得的内耗峰与钢中的缺陷和应力状态有关系; (3)所得的内耗峰表现有反常的振幅效应,即在一定的观测温度时,如将内耗表示为外加应力的函数,则也得到一个内耗峰。这与本文作者之一以前在铝铜合金中所观测到的反常内耗峰的性质和表现相同,因而所得的内耗峰可能是由于氢与钢中的原子脱节的交互作用所引起来的。

A general theory on the realistic stress space of solids was formulated in a previous paper. In this paper, the bell stress spaces of several metals are compared, the concept of "efficiency of plastic deformation" is introduced and formulated, and the locus of deformation is discussed in connection with the theory of bell stress space. The main concepts of this paper are:

前文[1]综合四理论[2],[3],[4],[5]构成固体现实应力空间之一初步理论,大体反映固态静力学性质,对金属较对非金属固体反映得当,后者受范形变曲面有异于弥氏圆柱。总起来看,前文仅涉及原则概念,未触及具体问题。为使此理论对金属压力加工及材料试验研究有所帮助,本文进一步研究几个问题: 1)由应力空间图形比较不同金属的静力学性质; 2)受范形变效率及其计算; 3)形变过程之轨迹;并得到一定数量或质量上的结论。 同时,附带对前文[1]中一个实验记录图的错误作修正,包括在附录内。

Creep under very small torsional stress has been investigated for 99.95% polycrystalline iron in the temperature range of 350°-525℃. The general features of the creep curves obtained are essentially the same as those previously reported for 99.991% aluminum. The creep is shown to be consisted of two parts, one occurring at lower temperatures or shorter times and the other at higher temperatures or longer times. The first part of the creep is limited in extent and is associated with the viscous behavior of grain...

Creep under very small torsional stress has been investigated for 99.95% polycrystalline iron in the temperature range of 350°-525℃. The general features of the creep curves obtained are essentially the same as those previously reported for 99.991% aluminum. The creep is shown to be consisted of two parts, one occurring at lower temperatures or shorter times and the other at higher temperatures or longer times. The first part of the creep is limited in extent and is associated with the viscous behavior of grain boundaries. The activation energy for this grain-boundary creep is 78,000 ± 4,000 calories per mole according to the present creep and stress relaxation measurements. This value is close to the activation energy for self-diffusion of iron, a correlation which indicates that, in so far as to the mechanism of atomic migration is concerned, grain boundaries may not be very different from the interior of the grains.

用99.95%的多晶纯铁作了从350°-525℃的扭转微蠕变及应力弛豫试验,所得结果的概貌与以前用多晶纯铝所得的基本上相同。从蠕变曲线上可以看出这蠕变是由两部分组成的:第一部分是在较低温度或较短时间内发生的,第二部分是在较高温度或较长时间内发生的。第一部分的蠕变是有限的,是由于晶粒间界的粘滞性滑移所引起。根据微蠕变及应力弛豫测量的结果,这一部分蠕变所包含的激活能是78,000±4,000卡/克分子。这个激活能(晶粒间界滑移激活能)的数值与纯铁自扩散的激活能很相近,表示晶粒间界与晶粒内部对于原子迁移的基本过程而言并没有显著的差异。 加碳于纯铁中对于这两部分的蠕变都有显著的影响。最值得注意的结果是含碳量少到0.0004%时已经使晶粒间界的粘滞性滑移受到显著的阻碍。这些发现在控制金属高温蠕变的问题上指出一个一般性的原则,对于以前所提出来的晶粒间界空穴模型也提供了一些新的实验证据。 根据加碳的实验结果,对于第二部分高温蠕变的机构也提出了一个初步的看法,这蠕变所包括的基本过程可能是晶粒内部的空穴中的原子重新排列。

 
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