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批评政治
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  political critique
     To counter political power, their cultural power was gradually constructed on “Li” (理) which superimposed itself over everything, even imperial power, as their criterion for political critique.
     而这种文化权力为了与政治权力对抗 ,逐渐建构了一种超越一切甚至是皇权之上的“理” ,作为批评政治的理论根据。
短句来源
  相似匹配句对
     On Political Criticism
     论政治批评
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     Ldeology and Political Criticism
     意识形态与政治批评
短句来源
     The Responsibility of Criticism
     批评的责任
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     The Task of Arts Critique
     批评的任务
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     charm of politics;
     “政治”的魅力 ;
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  political critique
On materiality and social form: A political critique of Rubin's value-form theory
      
Value pluralism, public justification, and post-modernism: The conventional status of political critique
      
I demonstrate that survivor narratives can obtain a strategic multivocality, oscillating between phenomenological account and political critique, between clinical description and moral exhortation.
      
In other words, negative news imply a political critique in direct or indirect ways.
      


During the 70s and 80s of the 11th century, a stratum of gentry emerged. They countered the power of the state with their ideology, neutralizing the political power with cultural power, and attempting to achieve a balance between the center of culture and the center of politics. To counter political power, their cultural power was gradually constructed on “Li” (理) which superimposed itself over everything, even imperial power, as their criterion for political critique. They constructed a high sounding ethical...

During the 70s and 80s of the 11th century, a stratum of gentry emerged. They countered the power of the state with their ideology, neutralizing the political power with cultural power, and attempting to achieve a balance between the center of culture and the center of politics. To counter political power, their cultural power was gradually constructed on “Li” (理) which superimposed itself over everything, even imperial power, as their criterion for political critique. They constructed a high sounding ethical idealism and moderate cultural conservatism with a newly stated and newly explained “Dao Tong” (Confucian orthodoxy) and “Xinqing” (disposition), as well as new classics. These formed the basic background to the rise of Li Xue (Neo Confucianism). The differences in the ideas of on the job bureaucrats and off the job bureaucrats, the contradictions between realistic strategy and cultural ideals led to unprecedented separation and contradiction of “Zheng Tong” (political orthodoxy) and “Dao Tong” (Confucian orthodoxy), “teachers” and “officials”, the center of politics and the center of culture.

11世纪七八十年代 ,北宋逐渐形成一个介于国家 (皇权 )与民众(个人 )之间的士绅阶层 ,他们以思想与国家分庭抗礼 ,以文化权力抵消着政治权力 ,试图使文化重心与政治中心取得平衡。而这种文化权力为了与政治权力对抗 ,逐渐建构了一种超越一切甚至是皇权之上的“理” ,作为批评政治的理论根据。他们用重新叙述和解释过的“道统”说、“性情”说以及新的经典 ,建构一种高调的道德理想主义与温和的文化保守主义思路 ,这就是后来理学兴起的基本背景。由于在位官僚与赋闲官僚的趋向不同 ,现实策略与文化理想的思路矛盾 ,使中国出现了前所未有的“政统”与“道统”、“师”与“吏”、政治重心与文化重心的分离和对立。

Chinese literature moves towards the world,and it should demand itself adversely from the historical deposition.In the past,we did not take the readers of the whole world as the “target of service”.For the rank and file abroad,they refuse Chinese literature not because of ideology different from theirs,mainly our literary works have or don't have the broad nature of all humanity,or let them get to know each other and share each other's mind by means of reading,viewing and admiring the works of literature and...

Chinese literature moves towards the world,and it should demand itself adversely from the historical deposition.In the past,we did not take the readers of the whole world as the “target of service”.For the rank and file abroad,they refuse Chinese literature not because of ideology different from theirs,mainly our literary works have or don't have the broad nature of all humanity,or let them get to know each other and share each other's mind by means of reading,viewing and admiring the works of literature and art.At present,the disordered literary state,multipolirzation and pluralization of the groups of creation are the clear proof of this grand visual field of the view point of “literature and art of the entire people”,it is the very good juncture of great development of literature as well.The political criterion of literary criticism may be simplified into a kind of the law ,for nstance,if the material and contents the writers describe are not illegal artistry will be raised to the first place of the criterion to measure those works.We demand that the highest state of the works of literature and art is perfect integration of thought and art,contents and forms.When this highest state is hard to reach,a shortcut to seek success and instant benefits may be substituted for the hard work of artistic creation.Nowadays,in some works“thinking is bigger than the images”,the themes are projected in models and abstract terms,there exists a cult of “the theory of material-decision”,it highly values the writing of thinking type and make light of the writing of artistic type,all of those concern the misunderstanding and misleading of “political criterion first”.

中国文学走向世界 ,必须从既往的历史积淀中反求诸己。过去我们没有把全世界读者看作是“服务对象”。对外国平民百姓来说 ,并不都是因为意识形态不同而拒斥中国文学 ,主要还在于我们的作品所描写的内容和题材 ,是否具有更广泛的全人类性 ,是否能让他们通过观赏文艺达到一种相互了解和心灵沟通。当前文学失序的状态和创作群体的多极化、多元化 ,是这种大视野的“全民文艺”观的明证。也是文学大获发展的一个非常好的契机。文学批评的政治标准可以简化为一种法律 ,如作家所写的题材和内容不违法 ,艺术性就上升到衡量该作品标准的第一位了。我们要求文艺作品的最高境界 ,是思想与艺术、内容与形式的完美结合。当这种最高标准难以达到时 ,一种急功近利的捷径 ,常常代替艺术创造的艰苦努力。今天有些作品“思想大于形象” ,主题设置模式化、概念化 ,迷信“题材决定”论 ,重思想型写作而轻艺术型写作 ,都可能与受“政治标准第一”的曲解和误导有关

The principal criticism of Chinese literature, i.e. the Chinese literature criticism in the main position of Chinese literature, is a type of authoritative discourse in essence. It shows different forms——moral criticism, political criticism and humanistic criticism because of the differences in history, theoretical basic category and authoritative symbol. Moral criticism that existed during the period of pre Qin Dynasty to the Late Qing Dynasty is the authoritative discourse of ethics based on Confucianism,...

The principal criticism of Chinese literature, i.e. the Chinese literature criticism in the main position of Chinese literature, is a type of authoritative discourse in essence. It shows different forms——moral criticism, political criticism and humanistic criticism because of the differences in history, theoretical basic category and authoritative symbol. Moral criticism that existed during the period of pre Qin Dynasty to the Late Qing Dynasty is the authoritative discourse of ethics based on Confucianism, on kindness versus wickedness in category. Political criticism existed during the period of the New Culture Movement to the 1980's, in which the authoritative discourse of government decree based on Marxism, on revolution versus reaction and advance versus backwardness in category. Humanistic criticism, during the 1980's and 1990's, is the authoritative discourse of knowledge based on Quasi Marxism, on humanism and main body in category. Besides appreciation of beauty criticism that doesn't belong to the principal criticism, has been in the subordinate status all along, but has its own place in the whole structure of Chinese literary criticism.

中国文学的主体批评即处于主体地位的中国文学批评本质上是一种权力话语。由于存在历史、理论基础、基本范畴和权力表征的不同 ,依次表现为道德批评、政治批评、人本批评。道德批评是存在于先秦至清末的以孔子儒家思想为基础 ,以正与邪、善与恶为基本范畴的伦理型权力话语。政治批评是存在于新文化运动至 2 0世纪 80年代的以马克思主义为基础 ,以革命与反动、进步与落后为基本范畴的政令型权力话语。人本批评是存在于 2 0世纪八九十年代的以准马克思主义为基础 ,以人性和主体性为基本范畴的知识性权力话语。审美批评虽然作为非主体批评一直处于从属地位 ,但是存在于中国文学批评的整体结构之中

 
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