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The present work is an extension of previous experiments in which the stance of cats was perturbed by a horizontal translation of the supporting surface in the anterior and posterior directions (Rushmer et al.


The epaxial extensor muscles participate in the rapid postural responses evoked by horizontal translation of the support surface.


The present study examined how postural responses were influenced by the accelerationdeceleration interval of an unexpected horizontal translation.


The present research focuses on motions consisting of angular tilt and horizontal translation, both sinusoidal, where the relative timing, i.e.


This article will focus on a central case, for understanding of motion parallax in spacious realworld environments, of monocular visual cues observable during pure horizontal translation of the eye through a stationary environment.

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 There are inevitably initial irregularities on shells of upright cylindrical tanks due to errors of manufacture and erection. These irregularities influence the distribution of hydrodynamic pressure of liquid in the tank, thus effecting dynamic characteristics and earthquake response of the tank. Hydrodynamic pressure of liquid in the tank with shell irregularities of cos (mθ) and sin (mθ ) ( m =1,2,…) types is analyzed by means of velocity potential function. The study considers not only horizontal translation... There are inevitably initial irregularities on shells of upright cylindrical tanks due to errors of manufacture and erection. These irregularities influence the distribution of hydrodynamic pressure of liquid in the tank, thus effecting dynamic characteristics and earthquake response of the tank. Hydrodynamic pressure of liquid in the tank with shell irregularities of cos (mθ) and sin (mθ ) ( m =1,2,…) types is analyzed by means of velocity potential function. The study considers not only horizontal translation of the base but also vertical translation and rocking motion of the base. The analytical results show that the irregularities on shells can induce hydrodynamic pressure components of highorder modes.  由于制造和安装误差，实际储液罐的罐壁将不可避免地存在着初始不规则。罐壁的初始不规则将影响储液罐的动态特性和地震响应。对于罐壁具有ｃｏｓ（ｍθ）和ｓｉｎ（ｍθ）（ｍ＝１，２，…）型初始不规则的立式圆柱形储液罐，利用速度势函数研究了罐内液体的动水压力分布。研究中不仅考虑了基础的水平平动，而且考虑了基础的竖向平动和摇动。研究结果表明，罐壁的初始不规则可诱发高阶波型的液体动水压力分量  Normalized equation of motion of the singlemasssystem with two translational freedoms along its perpendicular principal axes was formulated using strength reduction factors when subjected to two dimensional ground motions. Restoring force characteristics of the singlemass twodegreesoffreedom system were determined by twodimensional yieldsurface plasticity theory. Then constant ductility inelastic spectrum of strength reduction factors for one dimensional ground motion were introduced to the normalized... Normalized equation of motion of the singlemasssystem with two translational freedoms along its perpendicular principal axes was formulated using strength reduction factors when subjected to two dimensional ground motions. Restoring force characteristics of the singlemass twodegreesoffreedom system were determined by twodimensional yieldsurface plasticity theory. Then constant ductility inelastic spectrum of strength reduction factors for one dimensional ground motion were introduced to the normalized equation and pseudoconstant ductility inelastic spectra for bidirectional ground motions were presented. It was defined as the ratio of the maximum displacement response in the same principal axes direction of the singlemasssystem when subjected to two and one dimensional ground motions respectively. The effects of periods, displacement ductility factors and damping on spectra amplitude and bidirectional structural responses were discussed by statistic analysis of 10 recordings in two directions on hardsite. Bidirectional earthquake excitations will increase the maximum displacement response of structures in the direction with longer period as compared with onedirectional one. Decreasing the target displacement ductility factor of structures in the direction with shorter period can reduce the negative effects of bidirectional ground motions on structural response in the displacement based seismic design. Damping has little influence on the pseudoconstant ductility inelastic spectra since it is defined by the ratio of the maximum displacement responses.  首先建立了以强度折减系数表述的恢复力特性满足二维屈服面模型的理想弹塑性单质点系统(它在2个相互垂直的主轴方向上分别具有水平平动自由度)在双向地震动作用下的归一化运动方程。然后引入单向地震动作用下等延性系数的强度折减系数谱,给出了双向地震动作用的拟等延性系数谱(定义为系统分别承受双向和单向地震动作用,在同一主轴方向上的最大位移反应之比)最后通过硬土场地10组双向地震动记录拟等延性系数谱的统计平均结果,分析了结构周期、位移延性系数和阻尼等因素对谱值及结构双向地震反应的影响。结果表明,双向地震动作用与单向地震动作用相比主要增加结构较长周期方向的最大位移反应。若在基于位移的抗震设计中降低结构较短周期方向的设计位移延性系数,可在一定程度上降低双向地震动的不利影响。因定义的谱为比值形式,阻尼对其影响不大。  More attention has been paid to inelastic design spectra with the development of performance/displacement based seismic design, because it can be used to estimate the maximum displacement demand of structures. The bidirectional inelastic response spectrum by considering the multicomponent earthquake excitation and coupled characteristics of structural response is developed, which is defined as the ratio of the maximum displacement response in the same principal axes direction of a singlemasssystem with two... More attention has been paid to inelastic design spectra with the development of performance/displacement based seismic design, because it can be used to estimate the maximum displacement demand of structures. The bidirectional inelastic response spectrum by considering the multicomponent earthquake excitation and coupled characteristics of structural response is developed, which is defined as the ratio of the maximum displacement response in the same principal axes direction of a singlemasssystem with two translational freedoms along its perpendicular principal axes when subjected to two and onedimensional ground motions respectively. Forcerestoring characteristics of the twodegreeofsinglemasssystem are determined by twodimensional yieldsurface plasticity theory. The inelastic spectra with constant strength reduction factors are given. The effects of periods, strength reduction factors and damping on spectra amplitude and bidirectional structural responses are discussed by statistic analysis of 10 recordings in two directions on hardsite. Bidirectional earthquake excitations will increase the maximum displacement response of structures in the direction with longer period mainly as compared with onedirectional one. Increasing the design strength of structures in the direction with shorter period can reduce the negative effects of bidirectional ground motions on structural response. Damping has little influence on the inelastic spectra with constant strength reduction factors since it is defined by the ratio of the maximum displacement response.  在基于性能/位移抗震设计中,弹塑性反应谱在计算结构地震位移反应方面越来越受到重视.考虑实际地震动的多维性和结构非线性反应空间耦合特性,研究并建立了双向地震动作用弹塑性反应谱模型,将其定义为在两个相互垂直的主轴方向上分别具有水平平动自由度,恢复力特性满足二维屈服面模型的理想弹塑性单质点系统,分别承受双向和单向地震动作用,在同一主轴方向上的最大位移反应之比.给出了一种等强度折减系数的弹塑性谱.通过硬土场地10组双向地震动记录等强度折减系数谱的统计平均结果,分析了结构周期、强度折减系数和阻尼等因素对谱值及结构双向地震反应的影响.结果表明,双向地震动作用相对单向地震动作用主要增加结构较长周期方向的最大位移反应;若增加结构较短周期方向的设计强度,可在一定程度上降低双向地震动不利影响;因定义的谱为比值形式,阻尼对其影响不大.  
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