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     A New Biotechnique for Genetic Manipulation of Crops──Introduction of Exogenous DNA(Gene)into Plant after Pollination
     农作物遗传操纵新技术──授粉后外源DNA(基因)导入植物的生物工程育种技术
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     Genetics of Alien Preferentially Transmitted Chromosomes (genes)in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)and Their Applications in Wheat Breeding
     外源优先传递染色体(基因)在普通小麦中的遗传及其在育种中的应用
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     Behaviours of Exogenous Plasmids(Genes)in Peanut rhizobia
     外源质粒(基因)导入花生根瘤菌的行为分析
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     Extra chromosome of each trisomc carried different heredity information(gene),leading to above factors changes in various degree /which caused n+l male gamete transmission difference of distinct trisomics.
     由于每个三体的额外染色体所携带的遗传信息(基因)不同,导致这些因素发生不同程度的变化,最终导致不同三体MI雄配子的传递率产生差异。
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     It was confirmed that the 12 variantsystems are all transformant systems of exogenous DNA(or genes). It was revealed that the tech-nique of exogenous DNA introduction is an effective way to improving a few(or one) charactersof cultivars and enriching germplasm resources.
     证实了这12个变异系均为外源DNA(基因)转化系,揭示了外源DNA导入技术是改良品种的少数或个别性状、丰富种质资源的有效途径。
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     4 new genes were obtained.
     U基因
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     The NiCoT gene of S. aureus had been successfully expressed in E.
     外源基因在E.
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Simultaneous introduction of multiple genes into plants is a critical step in plant genetic engineering to manipulate multiple functional genes in metabolic engineering and trait stacking.
      
It is important to construct a bidirectional promoter for transforming two or more genes into plants simultaneously.
      
The transient expression of the gusA and gfp genes were detected by histochemical staining for GUS and by fluorescence microscopy for GFP.
      
At present, this procedure can be used to evaluate the genetic effect of individual major genes (up to two to three major genes), the collective genetic effect of polygene, and their heritability value.
      
Molecular mapping of two semidwarf genes in an indica rice variety Aitaiyin3 (Oryza sativa L.)
      
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Four different types of cytoplasmic male sterility in maize were tested for their identityby use of the restoration technique.Male-sterile lines incorporated with cytoplasm of theTexas source were found to be completely affected in crosses by a group of restorers includ-ing W153,W28 and G32,and partially restored by W24,M14 and A34.This made a figure of6 restorers out of about 60 inbreds thus tested in the Texas cytoplasm.Inbreds W153 wasselected as a differential restorer for T-type steriles since it gave no...

Four different types of cytoplasmic male sterility in maize were tested for their identityby use of the restoration technique.Male-sterile lines incorporated with cytoplasm of theTexas source were found to be completely affected in crosses by a group of restorers includ-ing W153,W28 and G32,and partially restored by W24,M14 and A34.This made a figure of6 restorers out of about 60 inbreds thus tested in the Texas cytoplasm.Inbreds W153 wasselected as a differential restorer for T-type steriles since it gave no reactions to the othertypes.For the Moldavia type of male sterility,formerly offered by Prof.Hadjinov,we founda partially restoring inbred W9 to be better suited for the similar purpose.The third andfourth type of male sterility,designated as B- and G-type,came through our own selectionsfrom two Bulgarian varieties.Separation between them seemed difficult.Since A374 gavepartial pollen fertility to the B-type steriles exclusively,it could be used as a differentiat orfor this type of cytoplasm.Pollen restoration in crosses involving W153 and W28 followed the expectation based ona dominant Mendelian gene.However,data obtained from segregating progenies of doublecrosses in which G32 was the restorer suggested strongly that two dominant complementarygenes were more workable.The difference in genotype of inbreds concerned in variousinvestigations seemed to be responsible for such inconsistent results.Segregating patterns in the Texas sterile crosses of the partial restorer,W24 or M14,varied with plants used as the pollen parent and with the date of planting.It appeared verylikely that W24 and M14 were heterozygous for major restorer genes since one sterile versionof W24 and four fully restoring lines of M14 had been established by conversion and test-cross-ing respectively.Dominant modifiers might also be present in either of the inbred popula-tions.In the presence of Moldavian cytoplasm the recessive allele of the restorer gene seemedto exert an abortive action to its pollen carriers produced by the heterozygote.When plantsheterozygous for the restorer gone were outcrossed to male steriles carrying the right cyto-plasm,all plants from the progenies proved to be pollen shedders.It was suggested that theM-type cytoplasm might be similar to that of S-type.Tentative genotypes related to pollen restoration of Texas male sterility had been workedout for a number of inbreds on the basis of two dominant complementary genes.Workingschemes for the production of double-cross seeds of maize without detasseling had been sum-marized and discussed by the authers.

三种细胞质遗传的玉米雄花不孕类型各有其专效的恢复系和部分恢复系。在 T 型细胞质基础上,测定出两对显性互补基因决定着花粉孕育性的恢复,同时还有显性修饰基因存在,影响其表现的程度。春播和夏播的不同环境条件只对部分恢复性的表现发生明显影响,对全恢复性和不孕性则很少能够改变。M 型恢复性的等位隐性基因在杂合株内对花粉粒具有某种致死或败育作用,故测交后代表现不分离现象。本文初步鉴定了若干常用自交系的 T 型恢复基因型,并以此作为根据,提出了配制全不去雄的玉米双交种的各种可能方案。

The glutamic dehydrogenase(GDH)-positive mutant, B. subtilis IRC-3-N-1, produced alanine dehydrogenase(ADH)when grown in nutrient medium. The formation of ADH by this mutant was inductive in nature. The inducer for ADH synthesis was not restricted to the substrate of the enzyme. Aspartic acid, threonine, both enantiomorphs of alanine and pyruvate were all effective.During the fractionation of the enzymes, GDH and the induced ADH were coexistent in the same fraction and distributed in almost the same proportions....

The glutamic dehydrogenase(GDH)-positive mutant, B. subtilis IRC-3-N-1, produced alanine dehydrogenase(ADH)when grown in nutrient medium. The formation of ADH by this mutant was inductive in nature. The inducer for ADH synthesis was not restricted to the substrate of the enzyme. Aspartic acid, threonine, both enantiomorphs of alanine and pyruvate were all effective.During the fractionation of the enzymes, GDH and the induced ADH were coexistent in the same fraction and distributed in almost the same proportions. The inductive ADH was found to be indistinguishable from its constitutive form in the wild type in regard to electrophoretic mobility. Since inductive formation of ADH did not cause a corresponding decrease of the constitutive GDH and contrarily, inhibition of ADH synthesis did not bring about any change of the level of the GDH in the mutant cells, the possibility that GDH was converted metabolitically to ADH was ruled out.All the GDH-positive mutants including those obtained by nitrous acid treatment and those of spontaneous origin are capable of inductive synthesis of ADH.In view of the inducibility of ADH synthesis in the GDH-positive mutants and the foregoing data on the immunology of these two enzymes, it was assumed that the genetic transition of ADH to GDH was a result of the mutation of a regulatory gene concerned in the synthesis of ADH.

枯草杆菌B.subtilis IRC-3-N-1,GDH~+变种在营养培养基上生长时能产生ADH。这样合成的ADH是誘导性貭的。誘导物除了酶的底物,L-丙氨酸外,尚有DL-天門冬氨酸,DL-苏氨酸,D-丙氨酸与丙酮酸。将酶进行純化时,GDH与誘导性的ADH始終同时存在于每一步驟中,而且两者的比例不变。誘导性的ADH与野生型细菌的本貭性ADH在电泳移动率上沒有区別。由于ADH誘导形成时,并末观察到变种細胞內GDH的相应減少,同时抑制了ADH的誘导合成,并不引起GDH水平的变化,因之由后者直接轉变成前者的可能性并不存在。所有GDH~+变种,包括自亚硝酸誘发突变或自发突变来源的,都能誘导生成ADH。从以上这些試驗結果,以及以前关于ADH与GDH免疫学試驗的結果,作者們认为枯草杆菌中,由亚硝酸誘发突变而引起ADH轉換成GDH的原因是由于与ADH合成有关的調节基因发生突变的結果。

In many important types of reactions involving olefins or acetylenes, catalyzed by compounds of the transition metals, activation of the unsaturated reacting groups is probably effected through the formation of δπ -bonds with the catalysts. In the present article, a critical review of the mechanisms of these important types of teactions is given. The relation between catalysis by coordination activation and the catalytic behaviours of transition metals, oxide semi-conductors and acid catalysts, and the trend...

In many important types of reactions involving olefins or acetylenes, catalyzed by compounds of the transition metals, activation of the unsaturated reacting groups is probably effected through the formation of δπ -bonds with the catalysts. In the present article, a critical review of the mechanisms of these important types of teactions is given. The relation between catalysis by coordination activation and the catalytic behaviours of transition metals, oxide semi-conductors and acid catalysts, and the trend of development in modern theory of catalysis are also briefly discussed.

在不饱和有机物所参与的许多类型的催化反应中,过渡金属化合物催化剂的作用可认为是通过与反应分子中的不饱和反应基因构成σπ-配键,从而使其活化的.本文根据这概念讨论了烯烃化学中某些重要的催化反应和催化剂的作用机理;最后并扼要地讨论了络合活化催化作用与金属催化剂、氧化物半导体催化剂和酸催化剂的催化性能的关系,以及催化理论的发展动向,

 
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