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晶体
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  stilbene crystal
     Organic Scintillator—Preparation of Stilbene Crystal
     有机闪烁体—■晶体制备
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     Organic Scintillator—Preparation of Stilbene Crystal
     有机闪烁体—晶体制备
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     Annotations on ■
     释“
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     An Approach On■
     浅说
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     Photonic Crystals
     光子晶体
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     SPIRAL CRYSTALS
     螺旋晶体
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  stilbene crystal
Radiation Hardness of a Fast Neutron Scintillation Spectrometer with a Stilbene Crystal
      
The first results obtained in studies of the characteristics of a stilbene crystal irradiated by fast neutrons with a fluence of up to 1014 neutrons/cm2 are presented.
      
The pulse height spectrum of scintillations produced in the stilbene crystal by the recoil protons is analyzed to yield the incident neutron energy distribution.
      
The pulse height spectrum of the scintillations produced in the stilbene crystal by the recoil protons is analysed to yield the incident neutron energy distribution.
      


A right hallow circular cylinder of quartz having its generator parallel to the principal axis liberates electricity when subjected to torsion about its axis. Charges of opposite signs appear on the inner and outer surfaces. When torsion is applied in the same sense as that of the optical rotation, positive electricity is developed on the outer surface, and vice versa. The quantity of electricity produced by the action of a couple of moment C on a hollow quartz cylinder of external diameter d0, internal diameter...

A right hallow circular cylinder of quartz having its generator parallel to the principal axis liberates electricity when subjected to torsion about its axis. Charges of opposite signs appear on the inner and outer surfaces. When torsion is applied in the same sense as that of the optical rotation, positive electricity is developed on the outer surface, and vice versa. The quantity of electricity produced by the action of a couple of moment C on a hollow quartz cylinder of external diameter d0, internal diameter di and length l is klC/do do-di), where k is equal to 9.2x10-8 in absolute C. G. S. electrostatic units.

割水晶成一圆柱,圆柱之轴即为晶体之光轴,在圆柱之中心穿一孔道,使成一空心圆柱壳,以金属箔敷於圆柱壳内外侧面成两电极。当圆柱之一端固定,一端被扭,则两电极发生异号而等量之电荷,扭转之方向既易,内外两极电荷之号亦互易。若扭力偶矩左旋,则左旋水晶柱之外极得正电;若扭力偶矩右旋则右旋水晶柱之外极得正电。 吾人曾由实验测定水晶圆柱之长短l,内外直径d_i及d_0之大小,与由扭偶矩C所生电量q之关系式如次: q=k(l/(d_0(d_0-d_i)))C式中K为一常数,在C.G.S.绝对静电单位制中等於9.2×10~(-8)。

The circumferential vibration of a hollow quartz cylinder has been thoroughly studied. The empirical relation connecting the dimensions of the cylinder and the frequency of vibration has been formulated, and the temperature coefficients of the frequency determined. The temperature coefficient is practically zero for a wide range of temperature, when the ratio of the internal radius to the external radius of the cylinder approaches a value which is very close to 0.5.

以纯粹水晶割成空心圆柱,令圆柱之轴平行於晶体之光轴。于其里外二面,敷以铜质管状电极、置诸最简单之Pierce式振荡线路中,即能自生振动其振动之方式繁多,俱经吾人详细阐求,已在另文发表,茲不复赘。 各种振动方式中,以绕周振动发生最易。设圆柱内径与外径之比小于一去0.5极近之数,则绕周分三段而振动;设大于此数,则分六段而振动, 绕周振动之温度系数,亦经测定其法置圆柱於一特制之电炉中,连其二电极於振荡电路,令生振动。以所生高周率电流与一周率甚近之水晶片所生之高周率电流相干涉,由 是而生之低周率音差,复与一低周率振荡器相比较,若是则加热后圆柱振动周率之变化,可在该低周率振荡器上直接读之。 若是所得之结果绕周振动之温度系数,随其内外径之比而异。圆柱之绕周分三段而振动者,其温度系数常为正;内外径之比率增加,则温度系数减少。圆柱之线周分六段而振动者,其温度系数常为负;内外径之比率愈高,则温度系数愈大。惟适当三段振动告终六段振动肇端之时,则亘十馀度其周率几不以温度而变合二十馀度而平均计之其温度系数约为0.5×10~(-6)/C,小於寻常水晶片者五十馀倍。割制此种圆柱,并无繁难,且电极简单,装置便利以之控制振荡,校...

以纯粹水晶割成空心圆柱,令圆柱之轴平行於晶体之光轴。于其里外二面,敷以铜质管状电极、置诸最简单之Pierce式振荡线路中,即能自生振动其振动之方式繁多,俱经吾人详细阐求,已在另文发表,茲不复赘。 各种振动方式中,以绕周振动发生最易。设圆柱内径与外径之比小于一去0.5极近之数,则绕周分三段而振动;设大于此数,则分六段而振动, 绕周振动之温度系数,亦经测定其法置圆柱於一特制之电炉中,连其二电极於振荡电路,令生振动。以所生高周率电流与一周率甚近之水晶片所生之高周率电流相干涉,由 是而生之低周率音差,复与一低周率振荡器相比较,若是则加热后圆柱振动周率之变化,可在该低周率振荡器上直接读之。 若是所得之结果绕周振动之温度系数,随其内外径之比而异。圆柱之绕周分三段而振动者,其温度系数常为正;内外径之比率增加,则温度系数减少。圆柱之线周分六段而振动者,其温度系数常为负;内外径之比率愈高,则温度系数愈大。惟适当三段振动告终六段振动肇端之时,则亘十馀度其周率几不以温度而变合二十馀度而平均计之其温度系数约为0.5×10~(-6)/C,小於寻常水晶片者五十馀倍。割制此种圆柱,并无繁难,且电极简单,装置便利以之控制振荡,校准周率,对无线电通讯,裨益实多也。

Magnetization curves of the polycrystalline Fe-Co and Ni-Co alloys of the cubic system and also of the pure cobalt were determined by means of a ballistic method. Gans' theory of the magnetic properties of isotropic ferromagnetics was applied. The agreement between his theory and the experimental results is quite good for the strong fields but not so for the weak fields, just as in the ease of the pure ferromagnetics. The discrepancy for the weak fields may be explained by his neglect of the free energy which...

Magnetization curves of the polycrystalline Fe-Co and Ni-Co alloys of the cubic system and also of the pure cobalt were determined by means of a ballistic method. Gans' theory of the magnetic properties of isotropic ferromagnetics was applied. The agreement between his theory and the experimental results is quite good for the strong fields but not so for the weak fields, just as in the ease of the pure ferromagnetics. The discrepancy for the weak fields may be explained by his neglect of the free energy which is required to magnetize the elementary crystals isothermally to the saturation intensities in the easy direction of magnetization. After including this part of the energy the agreement between theory and experiment is improved in general and in some cases, it is remarkably good. For pure cobalt the magnetization intensities for a given field are smaller than those obtained by previous investigators, but in better agreement with the theory than those previously obtained. Since the disagreement cannot be accounted for by the experimental error in the present investigation, the comparatively less studied cobalt needs further investigation.

用冲击法量属於正方晶系之铁钴及镍钴合金并纯钴之多结晶体之磁化曲线与Gans氏各向同性铁磁物质磁性之理论相较知在强磁场时理论与实验之契合甚佳在弱磁场时则较差,弱磁场时之差异,可以Gans氏计算时略去磁化各元晶体於其易磁化方向至饱和度所需之自由能一点解释之改正此点后理论与实验之契合大体改善在数种合金且极佳。纯钴之磁化强度在各磁场下较之前人所得者均小,惟与理论之契合则较佳:此与前人不同之点既不能归诸本实验之误差,则此较少被注意之钴实需要更进一步之研究

 
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