Following above analysis, the atmospheric Tip-Tilts are computed real time with the two programmes from the lunar surface images near the Apollo 15 retro-reflectors, and the long exposure images with and without the Tip-Tilt are compared and the two algorithms are compared again with the data.

In this case the time interval of the earth tracking data should be no shorter than 75 seconds, the continuous tracking time should be no less than 30 day and night, and the interval of the sub lunar points on the lunar surface should be no larger than 110km.

In this paper, some important progress and recent results in the field were presented comprehensively, including some main concepts (albedos, phase function, photometries of the whole lunar disk and regions), photometry models, measured results of spectral albedo, especially the analyzed and researched results of the whole lunar surface and regions obtained from the data of spacecraft Clemmentine data photometric parameters, distributions of temperature, FeO and TiO_2 contents on the lunar disk, maturity of lunar regolith, ejection from basins, pyroclastic deposits, as well as regional geology.

To promote a global and thorough understanding about the moon, the scientific objectives of "rotation" exploration include mapping the three-dimension images of the global lunar surface, detecting the distributions and contents of 14 elements of the lunar surface materials, exploring the thickness of the lunar regolith and evaluating the resources of3He in lunar soils, exploring the influence of the solar activity on lunar space environments.

Utilizing the periodical analysis of variance and the method of mean generation function,predictions are made of La Nina,EI Nino,sunspots and the monthly mean areal rainfall over the Songhua River,Nenjiang River,and the second Songhua River regions from 2004 to 2013.Hereby,the lowest water level predictions of Songhua River at Harbin from 2004 to 2013 are revised.

Based on the total areal rainfall of the Songhua River,Nenjiang River, and the second Songhua River from July to November and the highest water level of the Songhua River mainstream of the previous year at Harbin,the lowest water levels of the Songhua River at Harbin from 2004 to 2013 are predicted.

The R-D method utilizes the spacecraft ephemeris data and Range-Doppler frequency information of the SAR echo data to produce an estimatign of the target position.

Light Flashes Caused by Leonid Meteoroid Impacts on the Lunar Surface

It is likely that they were produced by the impacts of the stream particles on the lunar surface.

The basic material for investigations is the scanned cosmic spectrozonal images of the lunar surface transmitted by the first Russian geostationary artificial meteorological satellite GOMS.

Estimation of the Area of the Perpetually Shaded Lunar Surface

The calculations are based on data on the distribution of lunar craters derived from the diameter/depth ratio and on the assumption of the equilibrium distribution of the crater population in the circumpolar areas of the lunar surface.

This paper discusses the problem of distribution of points on the moon's surface intersected by the orbits of several kinds of lunar rocket, based on the planar and space double two-body problem. First we obtained the ingress-region on the moon's sphere of influence in which the orbits with different initial veloceties can hit the moon vertically, slantingly and tangentially. Then we get the distribution of hitting points on moon's surfaceof these orbits; hence we determine the forbbiden regions on the moon's...

This paper discusses the problem of distribution of points on the moon's surface intersected by the orbits of several kinds of lunar rocket, based on the planar and space double two-body problem. First we obtained the ingress-region on the moon's sphere of influence in which the orbits with different initial veloceties can hit the moon vertically, slantingly and tangentially. Then we get the distribution of hitting points on moon's surfaceof these orbits; hence we determine the forbbiden regions on the moon's surface of hitting orbits with different initial velocities. The result of calculation shows that: the magnitude of forbbiden region mainly depends upon the magnitude of initial velocity, when the initial velocity increases, then the magnitude of forbbided region increases monotonically; in the case of ascending orbits, the position of forbbiden region is at the posterior part (opposite to the direction of lunar motion) of the invisible half of the moon's surface; in the case of descending orbits, the position of forbbiden region is at the posterior part of the visible half of the moon's surface. Consequently, the anterior part of the invisible half of the moon can be hitten by ascending orbit; and every point on the moon's surface can be hitten by an ascending or descending orbit with specified initial velocity.

The purpose of this investigation is to study the possibility and condition for a lunar probe to hit or to fly over, at close range, any given region on the surface of the moon. We limit the ballistic speed of the vehicle to 11.2 km/sec and require that the height at the last burn out point should be about a few hundred kilometres. Six definite regions on the surface of the moon are considered as the objectives of these flights. Four regions lie on the great circle where the orbital plane of the moon cuts the...

The purpose of this investigation is to study the possibility and condition for a lunar probe to hit or to fly over, at close range, any given region on the surface of the moon. We limit the ballistic speed of the vehicle to 11.2 km/sec and require that the height at the last burn out point should be about a few hundred kilometres. Six definite regions on the surface of the moon are considered as the objectives of these flights. Four regions lie on the great circle where the orbital plane of the moon cuts the lunar surface. They are designated as the "near", "remote", "east", and "west" points. For these points, only trajectories in the orbital plane of the moon have been considered. The other two regions, namely, the poles of the aforesaid great circle, are called the "north" and "south" points respectively. In the preliminary survey of the possible trajectories, the approximate method of assuming the earth-moon space as divided into two by a sphere of action of radius 66000 km around the moon has been employed. The trajectory may then be considered to consist of several sections, each one of which is determined by the laws of two-body problem. From considerations on the permissible angular momentum of the orbit, it has been possible to derive limiting values for the velocity of hitting and the angle of incidence in the case of impact trajectories. For reconnaissance trajectories, we try to find out the allowable perilunar distance and velocity as well as how close may the perilunar point of the trajectory be brought to the surface of the moon. From preliminary investigation by the approximate method of sphere of action, we have come to the following conclusions: A. For impact trajectories: 1) To hit either the near or the remote point, the vehicle must be approaching the moon from the east side. With velocity of impact somewhere in the range 160—180km/min, the probe may hit these points at an angle of incidence of 30° or greater. 2) Vertical impact is possible only at the east point with the velocity of hitting at slightly less than 160 km/min. 3) The west point may be hit by a lunar probe, but only at grazing incidence. 4) The trajectories for hitting the north and the south points could be mirror images of each other. These points may be hit at an angle of incidence of about 60°, at a speed of less than 160 km/min. B. For reconnaissance trajectories: 1) Over the near and the remote points, there is a whole series of symmetrical orbits in which the vehicle would be sure to return to the neighbourhood of the earth. When the perilunar velocity is about 100 km/min, the distance of close approach to the centre of the moon may be no more than 5000 km. We can make the trajectory come in contact with the surface of the moon, if we allow the perilunar velocity to be increased to 160 km/min. 2) With perilunar distance over 30000 km, it is possible for the vehicle to fly horizontally over the east point of the moon. Such reconnaissance flight is possible over the west point, but the vehicle has to be so low that the orbit becomes identical with the impact trajectory grazing the west point. 3) When the perilunar point of the orbit may be permitted to deviate about 45° from the zenith of the east or the west point, we can still have reconnaissance trajectories that will bring the vehicle back to the neighbourhood of the earth. 4) When we consider only trajectories whose motion inside the sphere of action is in a plane perpendicular to the earth-moon direction, we could have symmetrical orbits with horizontal flight over the north or the south point at a distance of about 24000 km from the centre of the moon. With permissible values at the moon for different definite points, the path of the vehicle is traced backward in time to verify if it did pass by the vicinity of the earth with reasonable speed. If so, the position and velocity of the vehicle near the earth are taken as the initial values at the last burn out point, and the impact or reconnaissance trajectory is computed once again. In such computations the attractions of both the moon and the earth are taken into account by the method of numerical integration. The trajectories thus obtained are listed in Tables 5, 6, and 7.

An expression of the meniscus liquid surface which is in contact with a solid wall is derived. The principle that controls the behaviour of the meniscus surface by means of different shapes of the solid wall is proposed, and the controlled condition of the meniscus surface is also calculated. Finally it is applied to achieve stable buoyancy of a specified float.