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Dr Motokuni Aoki and Dr Toshie Nata contributed equally to this work.
      


Between the second century B. C. and the first century A. D., the messengers of the Hun dynasty had successfully made several voyages to the Asia and Indian Ocean. In connection with the problems of geographical position where the messengers had arrived and the conditions of ship used in that time, there exists various points of view and keeps a sharp disagreement. Now, depending on the historical events, espe cially from the nautical history of China; and considering the social and geographical situation of...

Between the second century B. C. and the first century A. D., the messengers of the Hun dynasty had successfully made several voyages to the Asia and Indian Ocean. In connection with the problems of geographical position where the messengers had arrived and the conditions of ship used in that time, there exists various points of view and keeps a sharp disagreement. Now, depending on the historical events, espe cially from the nautical history of China; and considering the social and geographical situation of various nations, as well as the meteorogical information of navigation area and the nautical and ship's conditions at that time; the author suggests some conclusions as following.All ships used for navigation to and from were built by Chinese; those ships might maintain navigational ability for ocean voyage but not more than five months in continuous navigation, and it was not the actual running time; the navigators of the Han dynasty had utilized the seasonal wind for navigation to cross a gulf and successfully in fulfilling the plan. As for the right name of the nations or ports where the navigators reached, Du-Yuan Guo is located around Singapore; Yilumei Guo, Chenli Guo, Fugandoulu Guo are between the downstream and midstream of Irrawaddy River and the west coast of Burma; Huang-Zhi Guo is Vijayawada of the southeast coast of India; Pi-Zong, where the messengers of the Han dynasty reached on their voyage home by Yichenbu Guo (Sri Lanka), is Pattani, at the east coast of Malaya; Rinan Xiangling, the terminal of the voyage is somewhere about south Da Nang, Vietnam.

公元前二世纪至公元一世纪间,汉使远航南洋、印度洋的航线、所经各国位置及船舶等问题,是在学术界争论和分歧很多的问题。作者根据史籍的记载,以航海史学为主,结合各国社会历史地理状况,航区的气象规律,航海、船舶的条件等进行探讨,提出一些论证和见解。主要的考释结果是:汉使来回所乘均系本国船舶;汉使船舶具有远洋航海的条件和能力,但不能作长达五个月的不着陆连续航行,它的航程时间不是纯航行时间;汉代航海家能利用季风作横越海湾的航行和及时完成各段航程。汉使所达各国中,都元国应在今新加坡一带;邑卢没、谌离、夫甘都卢三国应在今缅甸伊洛瓦底江下游、中游和西部滨海地区;黄支国应在今印度东南沿海之维查雅瓦达一带;汉使回程经已程不国(今斯里兰卡)所至之皮宗,应为今马来半岛东岸之北大年,随后回至日南象林(今越南岘港南)。

Emperor Zhaozong of the North Yuan dynasty did come to Helin after he evacuated from Yuanchang, and made Helin his capital—— the spirit pillar and the political center for him to restore the Great Yuan dynasty. But this did not prevent the great khan Woeduo from travelling from place to place all the year round in order to overcome the difficulty in goods supply. After Tuogustiemuer was killed, the title of the Great Yuan was abolished , and Helin became ruins.

北元昭宗在撤离应昌后确实到了和林 ,并以和林为都城 ,作为复兴大元王朝的精神支柱和政治中心。但这并不妨碍为了解决物资供应的困难 ,大汗斡耳朵常年在外地巡游。脱古思帖木儿被杀 ,大元国号被废除 ,和林迅速沦为丘墟

Under the suggestion of the Han Officials, Hu Bi-lie decided the title of his dynasty, " The Great Yuan", of which the meaning was closely related to Han nationality's Confucian Scriptures: The Book of Changes. It conformed to Mongolian customs to worship the Heaven. It was direct successors of "The Great Mongolia" and "The Great Dynasty". "The Great Yuan" symbolized the winning of the orthodox politics and cultural attempt in the place of Zhongyuan. It reflected that Mongolia accomplished the transformation...

Under the suggestion of the Han Officials, Hu Bi-lie decided the title of his dynasty, " The Great Yuan", of which the meaning was closely related to Han nationality's Confucian Scriptures: The Book of Changes. It conformed to Mongolian customs to worship the Heaven. It was direct successors of "The Great Mongolia" and "The Great Dynasty". "The Great Yuan" symbolized the winning of the orthodox politics and cultural attempt in the place of Zhongyuan. It reflected that Mongolia accomplished the transformation of the empire from a nomadic nation to Zhongyuan Empire. Nu-Er-Ha-Chi established the title of Jin Dynasty, which had a clear-cut stand of the politics and national community of Nuzhen Nationality. Huang Tai-ji changed "Jin" to "The Great Qing". "The Great Qing" surpassed "The Great Ming", not only in power and meaning, but also conformed to the general ideas of the Han people and was approved by Nuzhen and Manchu nationalities. All the Mongolian tribes agreed of it.

忽必烈在汉臣建议下所定国号“大元”,取义与汉民族儒家经典《易经》密切相关,也合乎蒙古民族敬天的习俗,并与“大蒙古国”、“大朝”一脉相承。“大元”国号的定立,包含了赢取中原正统的政治与文化的企图,反映了蒙古从游牧国家到中原王朝转变的完成。努尔哈赤所建“金”国号,曾经是女真政治与民族共同体的鲜明标帜;皇太极易“金”为“大清”。“大清”不仅在气势、取义上胜过“大明”,而且顺应了汉人一般的思想观念,又能为女真或满洲民族所认同,为蒙古各部所赞成。

 
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