Xylooligosaccharides(XOS) that prominent capability as a prebiotic substrate for the proliferation of Bifidobacteria, a probiotic in the adult human colon, were received more and more attention with people more care about their healthy.

However, the flat-shell has its own disadvantages: The precision of membrane element is not perfect and it is difficult to connect one-dimensional element and two-dimensional element.

Magnetization curves of the polycrystalline Fe-Co and Ni-Co alloys of the cubic system and also of the pure cobalt were determined by means of a ballistic method. Gans' theory of the magnetic properties of isotropic ferromagnetics was applied. The agreement between his theory and the experimental results is quite good for the strong fields but not so for the weak fields, just as in the ease of the pure ferromagnetics. The discrepancy for the weak fields may be explained by his neglect of the free energy which...

Magnetization curves of the polycrystalline Fe-Co and Ni-Co alloys of the cubic system and also of the pure cobalt were determined by means of a ballistic method. Gans' theory of the magnetic properties of isotropic ferromagnetics was applied. The agreement between his theory and the experimental results is quite good for the strong fields but not so for the weak fields, just as in the ease of the pure ferromagnetics. The discrepancy for the weak fields may be explained by his neglect of the free energy which is required to magnetize the elementary crystals isothermally to the saturation intensities in the easy direction of magnetization. After including this part of the energy the agreement between theory and experiment is improved in general and in some cases, it is remarkably good. For pure cobalt the magnetization intensities for a given field are smaller than those obtained by previous investigators, but in better agreement with the theory than those previously obtained. Since the disagreement cannot be accounted for by the experimental error in the present investigation, the comparatively less studied cobalt needs further investigation.

In the statistical theory of superlattices in binary alloys, the dependence of the interaction energy upon atomic arrangements is taken into account by regarding the interaction energy in Bethe's theory as an average quantity depending on the degree of order and the composition of the alloy. Two simple assumptions concerning the functional relationship of the interaction energy with order and composition are made. The first is a linear function of order and composition. The second is a linear function of the...

In the statistical theory of superlattices in binary alloys, the dependence of the interaction energy upon atomic arrangements is taken into account by regarding the interaction energy in Bethe's theory as an average quantity depending on the degree of order and the composition of the alloy. Two simple assumptions concerning the functional relationship of the interaction energy with order and composition are made. The first is a linear function of order and composition. The second is a linear function of the average numbers of pairs of atoms. The result of applying these assumptions to superlattices of the type AB is that the critical temperature as a function of the composition is a maximum for equal sumber of A and B atoms only when a certain relation between the coefficients in the assumed function is satisfied. In the cass of superlattices of type AB3 the theory of Bragg and Williams is used for simplicity. It is shown that when the composition varies, the maximum of the critical temperature may occur at any desired composition by a suitables adjustment of the coefficients in the assumed functions. There is thus a hope of removing the discrepancy between theory and experiment on this line. The anomalous specific heat at the critical temperature is also calculated for different compositions. In the case of the AB type of superlattices, Bethe's formula for the energy is no longer valid, and in order to calculate the specific heat, an approximate formula for the energy is obtained by analogy with the theory of Bragg and Williams. Finally, the problem of separation into more than one phase is briefly discussed.

General formulas for the. critical temperature and the discontinuity of the ipecific heat of a, superlattice are obtained by the generalized quasi-chemical method, The results may be applied to any approximation.