The bottom outlets at the Three Gorges Project will be the most important discharge structure, characterized by their numourous openings,larger size,longer discharging duration,frequantly operation and higher and variable water head.
Past experimental results with the turbulent boundary layer on the overflow dam surface and the outlet structure bucket are summarized. Formulas for layer thickness of the smooth and rough spillway surface are derived.
Combining the demand of the water resources planning of Urumqi City, applying the model to Urumqi river water resources system,this article on the basic of analyzing the relation of natural channel inflow and loss process,using outlet structure simulate the urumqi river natural channel loss.
With more and more internal and external high-head conservancy projects constructed,finding a new dissipation method for solving the problems of outlet structure's safety and dissipation under the condition of high-head and large discharge is one of the hard nuts to crack having to be settled urgently during high-dam hydraulic design.
In this paper,it is considered that the VFIED is a newidea and also a new method in solving the problems appearing in high dams hydraulic design on highhead ,such as outlet structure safety and full dissipation in large discharge.
It is possible that the discharge structure is related to the existence of a region of self-maintained discharge (luminous film surrounding the electrode) and a region of semi-self-maintained discharge (spherical region).
The discharge structure is determined by the periodicity of the field of a Besselian beam in the radial and longitudinal directions and also depends on the power and duration of the heating pulse.
In the initial stage of the plasma channel formation, the configuration of the channel inhomogeneities follows the discharge structure.
If the spatial scale of the discharge structure is small, then the developing channel evolves into a homogeneous state.
It was found that the transverse discharge structure near the cathode radically changes during the pulse.